The Open Virology Journal

ISSN: 1874-3579 ― Volume 13, 2019

Adaptation of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in Feral Birds and their Potential Role in Interspecies Transmission

Aziz-ul- Rahman1, Momena Habib1, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir2, *
1 Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 54000, Lahore, Pakistan
2 Quality Operations Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 54000, Lahore, Pakistan



Newcastle Disease (ND), caused by Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1, avulaviruses), is a notifiable disease throughout the world due to the economic impact on trading restrictions and its embargoes placed in endemic regions. The feral birds including aquatic/migratory birds and other wild birds may act as natural reservoir hosts of ND Viruses (NDVs) and may play a remarkable role in the spread of the virus in environment. In addition, other 19 avulaviruses namely: AAvV 2 to 20, have been potentially recognized from feral avian species.


Many previous studies have investigated the field prevailing NDVs to adapt a wide range of susceptible host. Still the available data is not enough to declare the potential role of feral birds in transmission of the virus to poultry and/or other avian birds. In view of the latest evidence related to incidences of AAvVs in susceptible avian species, it is increasingly important to understand the potential of viruses to transmit within the domestic poultry and other avian hosts. Genomic and phylogenomic analysis of several investigations has shown the same (RK/RQRR↓F) motif cleavage site among NDV isolates with same genotypes from domestic poultry and other wild hosts. So, the insight of this, various semi-captive/free-ranging wild avian species could play a vital role in the dissemination of the virus, which is an important consideration to control the disease outbreaks. Insufficient data on AAvV 1 transmission from wild birds to poultry and vice versa is the main constraint to understand about its molecular biology and genomic potential to cause infection in all susceptible hosts.


The current review details the pertinent features of several historical and contemporary aspects of NDVs and the vital role of feral birds in its molecular epidemiology and ecology.

Keywords: Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1), Wild and Migratory birds, Epidemiology, Phylogeny, Newcastle Disease (ND), Fusion gene.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
Issue: Suppl-2, M3
First Page: 52
Last Page: 68
Publisher Id: TOVJ-12-52
DOI: 10.2174/1874357901812010052

Article History:

Received Date: 16/5/2017
Revision Received Date: 14/3/2018
Acceptance Date: 11/6/2018
Electronic publication date: 31/08/2018
Collection year: 2018

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1499
Abstract HTML Views: 679
PDF Downloads: 290
ePub Downloads: 237
Total Views/Downloads: 2705

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 929
Abstract HTML Views: 336
PDF Downloads: 213
ePub Downloads: 130
Total Views/Downloads: 1608
Geographical View

© 2018 Rahman et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Quality Operations Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 54000, Lahore, Pakistan; Tel: 0092-42-99210256; E-mail:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open