The Open Virology Journal


ISSN: 1874-3579 ― Volume 15, 2021

Chronically HIV-1 Infected Patients Exhibit Low Frequencies of CD25+ Regulatory T Cells

Cesar Mauricio Rueda Rios*, Paula Andrea Velilla, Maria Teresa Rugeles
Grupo Inmunovirologia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia


The characterization of regulatory T cells (Treg) during HIV infection has become of particular interest considering their potential role in the pathogenesis of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Different reports on Tregs in HIV-infected patients vary greatly, depending on the state of disease progression, anatomical compartment, and the phenotypic markers used to define this cell subpopulation. To determine the frequency of Tregs we included paired samples from peripheral blood and rectal biopsies from controls and chronic HIV patients with or without detectable viral load. Tregs were determined by flow cytometry using three different protocols: CD4+Foxp3+; CD4+Foxp3+CD127Low/-, and CD4+CD25+CD127Low/-. In addition, and with the purpose to compare the different protocols we also characterized Tregs in peripheral blood of HIV negative individuals with influenza like symptoms. Here, we report that Treg characterization in HIV-infected patients as CD4+Foxp3+ and CD4+Foxp3+CD127Low/- cells was similar, indicating that both protocols represent a suitable method to determine the frequency of Tregs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). In contrast, in HIV but not in flu-like patients, detection of Tregs as CD4+CD25+CD127Low/- cells resulted in a significantly lower percentage of these cells. In both, HIV patients and controls the frequency of Treg was significantly higher in GALT compared to PBMC. The frequency of Tregs in PBMC and GALT using CD4+Foxp3+ and CD4+Foxp3+CD127Low/- was higher in HIV patients than in controls. Similarly, the frequency of Treg using any protocol was higher in flu-like patients compared to controls. The results suggest that relying on the expression of CD25 could be unsuitable to characterize Tregs in PBMC and GALT samples from a chronic infection such as HIV.

Keywords: Regulatory T cell, human immunodeficiency virus, CD25, phenotype..

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2012
Volume: 6
First Page: 49
Last Page: 58
Publisher Id: TOVJ-6-49
DOI: 10.2174/1874357901206010049

Article History:

Received Date: 29/11/2011
Revision Received Date: 24/1/2012
Acceptance Date: 25/1/2012
Electronic publication date: 11/4/2012
Collection year: 2012

© Rios et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http: // which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the School of Medicine, University of Antioquia, Calle 62 # 52-59, Of. 532, Sede de Investigación Universitaria, Medellín, Colombia; Tel: 57-4-2-6482; Fax: 57-4-219-6481; E-mail:

Track Your Manuscript:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2023 Bentham Open