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Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases worldwide, resulting in serious economic losses and
public health issues. It is caused by intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella, which are responsible for a
debilitating disease in humans and a chronic infection in domestic animals. The present article considers the pathogenesis
of Brucella spp., with the goal to cover clinical aspects of the disease in the different mammalian species along with the
target cells used by this pathogen to survive inside the host. Additionally, important molecular mechanisms used by
Brucella to invade and persist inside the hosts target cells are also discussed.