This study is based on the microsatellite DNA analysis of 160 birds from the resident population of the European
robin (Erithacus rubecula) in South Italy. It used assignment procedures to study population genetic structure on a
seasonal and spatial scale. This population undergoes, twice each year, an altitudinal and intraregional short-distance migration.
The present analysis corroborates inference on short-distance altitudinal migratory phenomenon in a resident
robin population and suggests that the resident population investigated by us is “faithful” to its intraregional breeding and
wintering areas. Our data further indicate that the resident population may represent a distinct genetic entity and suggest
that regional ecological features along this geographical area as well as some behavioural characteristics of birds may
concur in the maintenance of population separation.