The Open Agriculture Journal




ISSN: 1874-3315 ― Volume 13, 2019
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Livestock Poisoning Plants: Identification and its Veterinary Importance in Afar Region of Ethiopia



Angesom H. Desta1, *
1 Department of Animal Sciences, Aksum University Shire Campus, College of Agriculture, P.O. Box 314, Shire, Ethiopia

Abstract

Background:

Plants are the major source of feed and have vital nutritious importance to animals; however, they also comprise a large variety of poisons known.

Objective:

A study was conducted to identify potential poisonous plants to domestic animals and its veterinary importance in selected districts of Afar region, Northeast Ethiopia.

Methodology:

Questionnaire survey and key informants interview were done with a total of 245 respondents and plant samples were taken for identification.

Results:

A total of 21 plants were identified and documented to have a poisonous effect on livestock. The poisonous plants frequently complained by the respondents were Capparis tomentosa, Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus, Lantana camara, Acacia absynica, Sorghum bicolar, Datura stramonium, Plantago lanceolata, Pteridium aquilinum and Solanum incanum. The majorly described predisposing factors for the occurrence of plant poisoning were feed shortage, nutritional deficiency and excessive consumption. The common poisoning seasons indicated were at the end of rainy season and during drought time. The plant parts that caused poisoning were leaves of plants. This study also revealed that bloating and other GIT disturbances, salivation, bloody urine and in appetance were among the frequently manifested signs in poisoned livestock. Moreover, this study showed that caprine and ovine followed by camels and bovine were the most frequently poisoned animals.

Conclusion:

Phytopoisoning is commonly occurring and challenging health of livestock in the study area. Hence, proper range management should be practiced to decrease the danger of plant poisoning to animals and all concerned bodies should collaborate on pasture and water development programs to minimize the risk of enforced consumption of livestock on poisonous plants due to feed shortage.

Keywords : Animal Feed, Bovine, Camel, Caprine, Phytopoisoning, Livestock.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 107
Last Page: 115
Publisher Id: TOASJ-13-107
DOI: 10.2174/1874331501913010107

Article History:

Received Date: 19/03/2019
Revision Received Date: 17/06/2019
Acceptance Date: 19/07/2019
Electronic publication date: 30/09/2019
Collection year: 2019

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© 2019 Angesom Hadush Desta

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Correspondence: Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Animal Sciences, Aksum University Shire Campus, College of Agriculture, P.O. Box 314, Shire, Ethiopia, Tel: 0913860448;
E-mails: meryangieboy@gmail.com; angesomhadush@yahoo.com






1. INTRODUCTION

Plants are the major source of feed for herbivorous animals and also used for the treatment of many diseases. Moreover, plants have vital nutritious importance to animals and providing the normal atmospheric oxygen. As animals majorly feed on plants and these plants comprise a large variety of poisons known [1Mekonnen Y. A survey of plants (potentially) toxic to livestock in Ethiopian flora. Sinet Ethiop J Sci 1994; 17: 9-32.], poisoning in animals consuming these plants is inevitable. Poisonous plants produce their toxic effects after being ingested and/or absorbed by animals, which include physical upset, loss of productivity and death. A variety of poisonous plants have caused extensive losses to the livestock industry in many parts of the world mainly east Africa including Ethiopia [2Bah M. The importance of Traditional Veterinary Medicine (TVM) in Animal health Programs FAO Corporate Document Repository, 2013.].

The possibility of founding poisonous plants in hay and forage poses a serious risk to livestock and other animals. There are several contributing factors, which facilitate the occurrence of animal poisoning. Different sensitive species of animals can ingest or exposed to a poisonous plant at normal conditions. It is also more likely to occur in animals which have been moved from one part of the country to another. Sudden onset of disease in a group of animals is the most obvious case among the many indications of plant poisonings [3Cheeke P. Natural toxicants in feeds, forages, and poisonous plants 2nd ed. 1998; 338-52.].

Factors such as route of absorption, dose, physical and chemical nature of the poison, frequency of exposure, species, body size, sex, and general health status of the animal may influence the action of poisonous substances. In addition, chemical factors such as particle size, solubility, toxicity, absorption and excretion rate, affinity for body tissues or fluids, interaction with other drugs, and lacking development of metabolic pathway can have an impact on its occurrence. Liver or kidney insufficiency may enhance toxicity due to poor metabolism or slow excretion of toxicants. Alteration in gastrointestinal pH can change the ionization of drug or chemicals and influence their absorption; presence or absence of food in the stomach affects the toxicity of certain compounds [4Dixit R. Pharmacokinetics and toxico kinetics: Fundamentals and applications in Toxicology.Veterinary Toxicology Basic and Clinical Principles 2nd ed. 2007; 132-7.].

Plant poisoning of livestock can be diagnosed based on history, clinical syndrome observed, post mortem lesions, evidence of plant grazing and/or browsing, and remains of poisonous plants in the gastro intestinal tract. If poison principle of the poisonous plants is known, confirmatory laboratory tests can be done [5Botha CJ, Penrith ML. Poisonous plants of veterinary and human importance in Southern Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 2008; 119(3): 549-58.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2008.07.022] [PMID: 18706990]
]. Good pasture management such as keeping the desirable forage species productive throughout the grazing season reduces the possibility of animals grazing on poisonous plants. In this case, most poisonous weeds and cultivated plants can be controlled. It may be practical to simply fence off infested areas so that animals do not have access to particularly hazardous weeds. This is one of the most important steps in preventing animal suffering or loss from poisonous plants. Other alternative methods of controlling poisonous weeds are to spray them with approved herbicides and physically or mechanically remove the poisonous plants [6Robert J, Donna F. Poisonous Plants of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 1986; 189.].

Poisonous plants affecting both large and small animals are a major concern for the practicing veterinarian and livestock producer in every country. In countries with higher plant biodiversity, the problem of plant poisoning to livestock may be greater. Plant biodiversity in Ethiopia is very high, as there are about 7,000 species of vascular plants in which some of it could be poisonous [7Berenal R, Galeano Z. Cordero Timber species threatened Red book of plants Colombia 2006; Vol. 4].

Plant poisoning in livestock can occur due to either accidental ingestion along with grass or obstinate consumption. Animals can consume poisonous plants when pasture is dry while most poisonous plants remain green all throughout the year [1Mekonnen Y. A survey of plants (potentially) toxic to livestock in Ethiopian flora. Sinet Ethiop J Sci 1994; 17: 9-32.]. Newly imported or animals migrated from other areas could be at higher risk because they are unfamiliar with the strange ingestion of their fresh surrounding [8Mugera GM. Phytolacca dodecandra l’Herit toxicity in livestock in Kenya. Bull Epizoot Dis Afr 1970; 18(1): 41-3.
[PMID: 5535798]
].

Overgrazing of pastures and ranges probably the greatest factor in causing losses from poisonous plants. The danger of overgrazing is always greatly increased in periods of moisture deficiencies that reduce forage production. However, plant poisoning essentially is a local problem occurring in areas where poisonous plants may form a large proportion of the herbage species available to grazing animals. Poisonous plants are often naturally refused by animals due to their repulsive smell or irritant juices and are eaten only when other herbage pastures is scarce [9Radeleff RD. Veterinary toxicology London: Bailliere 1964.]. Some plants may have the potential to penetrate skin of animals and introduce a poisonous chemical and causes an immediate burning sensation of the skin [10Durairaj P, Kamaraj M. Senthil, Kumar S. Ethnobotanical survey of folk plants for treatment of snake bite in Tiruchrapalli districts of Tamil Nadu, South India. Intern J Res Pharma Sci 2012; 3(1): 72-8.].

Among the factors that expose the livestock to the poisonous plants; shortage of feed, nutritional deficiency and sudden exposure were the major problems [1Mekonnen Y. A survey of plants (potentially) toxic to livestock in Ethiopian flora. Sinet Ethiop J Sci 1994; 17: 9-32., 9Radeleff RD. Veterinary toxicology London: Bailliere 1964.]. Feed shortage can force animals to browse perennial shrubs and bushes while most of these perennial plants have been known to contain toxic secondary metabolites [5Botha CJ, Penrith ML. Poisonous plants of veterinary and human importance in Southern Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 2008; 119(3): 549-58.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2008.07.022] [PMID: 18706990]
]. These plant poisoning cause health problems in livestock with huge economic loss to the pastoralists due to production loss, morbidity and mortality of their animals. Furthermore, it is not customary among local veterinarians to write plant poisoning case reports, thus most of the plant poisonings that occur in the pastoral areas of Ethiopia are not well documented in the literature. Hence, it is imperative to bring the attention of professionals to the effects of poisonous plants on animal health and productivity [11Kaufmann R. Livestock system research in Nigeria’s Subhumid zone 1986; 186-283.]. Therefore, this study was conducted to fill this gap by identifying the potential poisonous plants to domestic animals and its veterinary importance in selected districts of Afar region, Northeast Ethiopia.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Study Areas

Afar regional state is located in the Great Rift Valley, comprising semi-arid range land in northeastern Ethiopia. According to regional estimates, the livestock population of Afar is about 10.12 million. The livestock populations found in the region are 2,318,220 cattle, 2,499,640 sheep, 4,444,290 goats and 859,580 camels. The Afar Regional State has five administrative zones, which are further subdivided into 32 districts. Pastoralism and agro- pastoralism are the two major livelihood ways practiced in the region. The population of the region is estimated to be about 1.4 million of which 90% are pastoralists and 10% agro- pastoral. The altitude of the region ranges from 120m below sea level to 1500m above sea level. Temperatures vary from 200C in higher elevations to 480C in lower elevations. Rainfall is bi-modal throughout the region with a mean annual rainfall below 500 mm in the semi-arid western escarpments and decreasing to 150 mm in the arid zones to the east [12C.S.A. Central Statistics Authority. Ethiopia agricultural Statistical report on livestock and livestock characteristics 2012.].The study was conducted in three districts selected from three zones, namely: Asayita district of Awsi resu zone, Aba’ala district of Kilebeti resu zone and Gewanie district of Gebi resu zone.

2.2. Target Population for the Study

The target populations for this study were livestock owners (herders and traditional healers) and animal health practitioners.

2.3. Study Design and Sampling Methods

The study design was cross-sectional type. Regarding sampling, three zones from the region and one district each from three zones were selected purposively based on expected plant coverage. Pastoralist Association (PA) was the lowest administrative unit within the district that was considered during the study. Accordingly, four PAs from each district were conveniently selected based on variety plant coverage and availability of traditional healers and individuals with good experience and knowledge of plant poisoning. All volunteer traditional healers selected based on recommendation from elders and other concerned bodies, and herders and animal health practitioners with good knowledge of plant poisoning were considered for the study. A total of 245 individuals were interviewed for the questionnaire survey and among these 35 individuals were used for the plant collection and identification based on their knowledge and interest to participate in the study.

2.4. Data Collection

2.4.1. Questionnaire Survey

Questionnaire survey was carried out by interviewing 245 voluntary animal owners, traditional animal healers and animal health practitioners. The questionnaire was used to collect information related to types of livestock poisoning due to poisonous plants; local name of poisonous plants; poisonous parts of the plant (seed, bark, leaves, etc), poisonous growth stage and state of poisoning; seasons of abundance of the poisonous plant; ways of exposure, amount to cause poisoning, and poisonous effects produced on exposure; agro-ecological and habitat of the poisonous plant and species of livestock mostly affected from the poisoning.

2.4.2. Key Informants Interview

From the total 245 individuals, an in-depth interview was conducted with 35 traditional healers and animal health practitioners in each selected districts who has helped in collecting and identifying the poisonous plants from the field in the region. The selection of these key informants was based on their knowledge and experience in the issue with the help of administrators, veterinarians and elders in the areas.

2.4.3. Sample Collection

Appropriate sample of plant parts was collected from surrounding rangeland of study areas with the key informants who knows the local name of the plants. The samples collected from the rangeland were compressed and preserved in laboratory according to Queensland Herbarium plant specimen collection and preserving manual [13Tony B. Collection and preserving plant specimens. A manual. Queensland Herbarium 2016.] and Biology department of Samara University was contacted for taxonomic identification.

2.5. Data Management and Analysis

The information that was gathered through questionnaire survey on suspected and complained poisonous plants to livestock was coded and entered to Microsoft Excel 2007 spread sheet. SPSS version 20 was used for the analysis. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate frequency and the percentage of the respondents.

3. RESULTS

In the present study, from the total respondents (245), about 70.2% (172) of the interviewee were livestock owners and 15.5% (38) and 14.3% (35) were animal health practitioners and traditional healers, respectively. The majorly described predisposing factors for the occurrence of plant poisoning were feed shortage, nutritional deficiency and excessive consumption. The common poisoning seasons indicated were at the end of rainy season (August to September) and during drought time (February to May) but at the beginning of the rainy Season (June to July) was low (Table 1).

According to the present study, a total of 21 plants were identified and documented to have a poisonous effect on livestock. The poisonous plants frequently complained by the respondents were Capparis tomentosa, Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus, Lantana camara, Acacia absynica, Sorghum bicolar, Datura stramonium, Plantago lanceolata, Grass species, Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and Solanum incanum (Figs. 1-8). The major plant parts that caused poisoning were leaves. This study also revealed that bloating and other GIT disturbances, salivation, bloody urine and inappetence were among the frequently manifested signs by poisoned livestock. Moreover, this study showed that caprine and bovine followed by camels and ovine were the most frequently poisoned animals (Table 2).

The poisonous plants with higher botanical frequency complained by respondents were Capparis tomentosa (156) and Prosopis juliflora (133). The clinical sign with leading veterinary frequency was bloating. Moreover, majority of the poisonous plants mainly occur at the rainy season and causes poisoning after repeated exposure (Table 3).


Table 1
Summary of responses on risk factors associated with plant poisoning.


Table 2
Summary of poisonous plant parts, signs, species affected and source of the plants.


Table 3
Botanical and veterinary frequency, exposure level and season of occurrence of poisonous plants.


Table 4
Frequency of parts, season of occurrence, signs and origin of poisonous plants.


Poisonous Plants Collected from the study areas.

Fig. (1)
Picture of Capparis Tomentosa (‘Andela’)


Fig. (2)
Picture of ‘Asihara’


Fig. (3)
Picture of ‘Boboe’ita’


Fig. (4)
Picture of Solanum incanum


Fig. (5)
Picture of Parthenium hysterophorus


Fig. (6)
Picture of Lantana Camara


Fig. (7)
Picture of ‘Adihara'


Fig. (8)
Picture of Prosopis juliflora (‘Datihara’)


4. DISCUSSION

Animal poisoning due to plants constitutes one of the most important health problems to livestock in countries with extensive production system [2Bah M. The importance of Traditional Veterinary Medicine (TVM) in Animal health Programs FAO Corporate Document Repository, 2013.]. In this study, the respondents have showed that livestock health disorders due to phytopoisoning cause a significant morbidity and mortality in animals in their areas.

The major predisposing factors for the occurrence of plant poisoning in the study areas were feed shortage, nutritional deficiency and excessive consumption. Afar region is one of the pastoral areas of Ethiopia with lower rainfall and limited plant coverage but rich in livestock production potential. This condition showed that there is long dry period and feed shortage in the region. Hence, due to feed shortage, animals are enforced to feed on poisonous perennial shrubs and bushes surviving the environment which are known to contain poisonous metabolites. In addition, there is a sudden consumption of new plants while migrating and excessive consumption of plants grown following short rainy season which contributed to phytopoisoning. Accordingly, the common poisoning seasons complained were at the end of rainy season (August-September) and during drought time (February-May). This finding is in agreement with the similar reports from Wollega, Ethiopia [14Abriham K, Tilahun Z, Dereje A, Girma K. Assessment of poisonous plants to livestock in and around nekemte area, east wollega zone of oromia regional state, western ethiopia. Nat Sci 2015; 13(8): 8-13., 15Dereje A, Tadesse B, Sultan A. Survey of toxic plants in livestock at horro gudurru wollega zone, western ethiopia. J Biol Agric Healthcare 2015; 5(1): 101-6.].

According to this study, a total of 21 plants were identified and documented to have a poisonous effect on livestock. The poisonous plants frequently described by the respondents were Capparis tomentosa, Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus, Lantana camara, Acacia abyssnica, Sorghum bicolar, Datura stramonium, Plantago lanceolata, Grass species such as Panicum species, Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and Solanum incanum. Reports from Adama, Ethiopia [16Dereje A, Tariku J, Teshale S, Ashenafi F, Takele B. Assessment of plant and chemical poisoning in livestock in central Ethiopia. J Environ Anal Toxicol 2014; 4: 215.] and from Wolllega, Ethiopia [14Abriham K, Tilahun Z, Dereje A, Girma K. Assessment of poisonous plants to livestock in and around nekemte area, east wollega zone of oromia regional state, western ethiopia. Nat Sci 2015; 13(8): 8-13., 15Dereje A, Tadesse B, Sultan A. Survey of toxic plants in livestock at horro gudurru wollega zone, western ethiopia. J Biol Agric Healthcare 2015; 5(1): 101-6.] have documented Parthenium hysterophorus, Lantana camara, Sorghum bicolar, Datura stramonium, Plantago lanceolata, Panicum grass species and Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) as the most frequently implicated poisonous plants which are in agreement with the current finding.

In addition, the importance of Snowdenia polystarchia, and Sorghum bicolar as causes of livestock poisoning have been reported [17Aslani MR, Maleki M, Mohri M, Sharifi K, Najjar-Nezhad V, Afshari E. Castor bean (Ricinus communis) toxicosis in a sheep flock. Toxicon 2007; 49(3): 400-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.10.010] [PMID: 17157890]
]. Similarily, Lantana camara causes similar effect in Columbia [18Ghisalberti EL. Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). Fitoterapia 2000; 71(5): 467-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00202-1] [PMID: 11449493]
] and in Swaziland [19Ogwang B. A survey of poisonous plants of livestock in swaziland. Bull Anim Health Prod Afr 1997; 45: 99-106.]. Bracken fern is also widely distributed in many parts of the world including Ethiopia. Its existence and importance as a cause of bloody urine has been previously shown in different regions [20Radostits O, Gay C, Hinchcliff K, Constable P. Veterinary Medicine A text book of the disease of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats 10th ed. 2007; 1851-95.] and it has also been reported in South Africa [21Smith B. The toxicity of bracken fern (genus Pteridium) to animals and its relevance to man. Plant and Fungal Toxicants 1997; 63-76.]. Various studies conducted on this issue indicated that poisonous plants may grow together with forage plants; therefore, readily accessible to grazing animals. Under normal conditions only a few poisonous plants can be considered sufficiently palatable. But during shortage of pasture and forage animals may be forced to browse these poisonous plants [16Dereje A, Tariku J, Teshale S, Ashenafi F, Takele B. Assessment of plant and chemical poisoning in livestock in central Ethiopia. J Environ Anal Toxicol 2014; 4: 215., 22Adediwura A, Kola K. Ethnobotanical survey of toxic plants and plant parts in Ogun State, Nigeria Intern J Green Pharma 2012; 6(3), 23Torres P, Diaz JG, Cárdenas E, Lozano MC. Study of ethnobotanical plants poisonous to cattle in eastern colombia. Intern J Poiso Plant Res 2012; 2: 14-9.].

The respondents of this study showed that when camels and small ruminants feed on ‘Andela’ (Capparis tomentosa) the leaf causes bloating but its seed pod is fatal to both animals. A leaf of ‘Adihara’ causes bloating in goats but it is a good feed to other large animals. The leaf and fruit of ‘Asihara’ causes bloating in animals especially camels and goats but after repeated exposure it becomes edible without serious effects. It grows at the end of rainy season or any time in irrigation fields. A leaf of ‘Bobe’eita’ is fatal to goats but it is a common feed to camels and it is commonly found in high hills. The seedling stage of ‘Basinga’ (Sorghum bicolar) can cause bloating in all animals but it may kill animals if it is overtaken at the same time. A leaf of ‘Datihara’ (Prosopis juliflora) is not palatable by animals due to its repellant nature but during drought times animals may be enforced to consume some as it is ever green and it causes bloating. Although its seed pod is palatable by animals, it can cause lower jaw dislocation when it is consumed after it is dropped and decayed in the ground and when it is not consumed together with other feed types [1Mekonnen Y. A survey of plants (potentially) toxic to livestock in Ethiopian flora. Sinet Ethiop J Sci 1994; 17: 9-32.]. Any type of grass especially Panicum grass species emerging at the beginning of rainy season have the potential to cause bloating and/or diarrhea as the animals consume much of it at a time following long dry periods.

The major plant parts that caused poisoning were leaves as these parts are easily accessible and repeatedly fed by animals. This study also revealed that bloating and other GIT disturbances, salivation, bloody urine and inappetance were among the frequently manifested signs by poisoned livestock. This finding is in agreement with the reports in Wollega, Ethiopia [14Abriham K, Tilahun Z, Dereje A, Girma K. Assessment of poisonous plants to livestock in and around nekemte area, east wollega zone of oromia regional state, western ethiopia. Nat Sci 2015; 13(8): 8-13., 15Dereje A, Tadesse B, Sultan A. Survey of toxic plants in livestock at horro gudurru wollega zone, western ethiopia. J Biol Agric Healthcare 2015; 5(1): 101-6.]. Furthermore, this study showed that caprine and bovine followed by camels and ovine were the most frequently poisoned animals which did not agree with the reports from Wollega. This could be due to the difference in livestock species abundance in which small ruminants and camels constitutes majority of livestock population in the current study area.

The clinical sign with leading veterinary frequency was bloating as the poisonous plants primarily affect the digestive system of animals. Moreover, majority of the poisonous plants mainly occur on the rainy season because following the rainfall a lot of plants will grow up and causes poisoning after repeated exposure. This finding is in line with the findings in Wollega, Ethiopia [14Abriham K, Tilahun Z, Dereje A, Girma K. Assessment of poisonous plants to livestock in and around nekemte area, east wollega zone of oromia regional state, western ethiopia. Nat Sci 2015; 13(8): 8-13., 15Dereje A, Tadesse B, Sultan A. Survey of toxic plants in livestock at horro gudurru wollega zone, western ethiopia. J Biol Agric Healthcare 2015; 5(1): 101-6.]. The poisonous plants with higher botanical frequency identified by respondents were Caparis tomentosa and Prosopis juliflora which differed from the above reports because of the difference in climatic conditions and plant coverage in the current study areas.

CONCLUSION

This study identified and documented a total of 21 plants having a poisonous effect on livestock. The poisonous plants with higher botanical frequency were Capparis tomentosa and Prosopis juliflora. Feed shortage, nutritional deficiency and excessive consumption were the major predisposing factors for the occurrence of plant poisoning. The common poisoning seasons were at the end of rainy season and during drought time. This study also revealed that bloating and other GIT disturbances were among the frequently manifested signs by poisoned livestock. Moreover, this study showed that caprine and bovine followed by camels and ovine were the most frequently poisoned animals. Hence, phytopoisoning is commonly occurring and challenging health of livestock in the area. Therefore, proper range management should be practiced to decrease the danger of plant poisoning to animals and all concerned bodies should collaborate on pasture and water development programs to minimize the risk of enforced consumption of livestock on poisonous plants due to feed shortage.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

Not applicable.

RESEARCH INVOLVING PLANTS

All the experimental research on plants was in accordance with "B. Tony, “Collection and preserving plant specimens”, a manual. Queensland Herbarium, Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation, 2nd ed, Brisbane Botanic Gardens Mt Coot-tha, Mt Coo-tha road, Toowong Brisbane QLD 4066, 2016".

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS

Not applicable.

FUNDING

The research was done by the fund totally granted from Samara University (One of the National University found in Afar Regional State of Ethiopia) by the grant Reference Number: SU/RCSVP/32/2016.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author declares no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author would like to acknowledge Samara University for the funding and Agriculture office of the study districts of Afar region and to traditional healers, livestock owners and animal health assistants of all study districts for their support during sample collection.

REFERENCES

[1] Mekonnen Y. A survey of plants (potentially) toxic to livestock in Ethiopian flora. Sinet Ethiop J Sci 1994; 17: 9-32.
[2] Bah M. The importance of Traditional Veterinary Medicine (TVM) in Animal health Programs FAO Corporate Document Repository, 2013.
[3] Cheeke P. Natural toxicants in feeds, forages, and poisonous plants 2nd ed. 1998; 338-52.
[4] Dixit R. Pharmacokinetics and toxico kinetics: Fundamentals and applications in Toxicology.Veterinary Toxicology Basic and Clinical Principles 2nd ed. 2007; 132-7.
[5] Botha CJ, Penrith ML. Poisonous plants of veterinary and human importance in Southern Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 2008; 119(3): 549-58.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2008.07.022] [PMID: 18706990]
[6] Robert J, Donna F. Poisonous Plants of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 1986; 189.
[7] Berenal R, Galeano Z. Cordero Timber species threatened Red book of plants Colombia 2006; Vol. 4
[8] Mugera GM. Phytolacca dodecandra l’Herit toxicity in livestock in Kenya. Bull Epizoot Dis Afr 1970; 18(1): 41-3.
[PMID: 5535798]
[9] Radeleff RD. Veterinary toxicology London: Bailliere 1964.
[10] Durairaj P, Kamaraj M. Senthil, Kumar S. Ethnobotanical survey of folk plants for treatment of snake bite in Tiruchrapalli districts of Tamil Nadu, South India. Intern J Res Pharma Sci 2012; 3(1): 72-8.
[11] Kaufmann R. Livestock system research in Nigeria’s Subhumid zone 1986; 186-283.
[12] C.S.A. Central Statistics Authority. Ethiopia agricultural Statistical report on livestock and livestock characteristics 2012.
[13] Tony B. Collection and preserving plant specimens. A manual. Queensland Herbarium 2016.
[14] Abriham K, Tilahun Z, Dereje A, Girma K. Assessment of poisonous plants to livestock in and around nekemte area, east wollega zone of oromia regional state, western ethiopia. Nat Sci 2015; 13(8): 8-13.
[15] Dereje A, Tadesse B, Sultan A. Survey of toxic plants in livestock at horro gudurru wollega zone, western ethiopia. J Biol Agric Healthcare 2015; 5(1): 101-6.
[16] Dereje A, Tariku J, Teshale S, Ashenafi F, Takele B. Assessment of plant and chemical poisoning in livestock in central Ethiopia. J Environ Anal Toxicol 2014; 4: 215.
[17] Aslani MR, Maleki M, Mohri M, Sharifi K, Najjar-Nezhad V, Afshari E. Castor bean (Ricinus communis) toxicosis in a sheep flock. Toxicon 2007; 49(3): 400-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.10.010] [PMID: 17157890]
[18] Ghisalberti EL. Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). Fitoterapia 2000; 71(5): 467-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00202-1] [PMID: 11449493]
[19] Ogwang B. A survey of poisonous plants of livestock in swaziland. Bull Anim Health Prod Afr 1997; 45: 99-106.
[20] Radostits O, Gay C, Hinchcliff K, Constable P. Veterinary Medicine A text book of the disease of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats 10th ed. 2007; 1851-95.
[21] Smith B. The toxicity of bracken fern (genus Pteridium) to animals and its relevance to man. Plant and Fungal Toxicants 1997; 63-76.
[22] Adediwura A, Kola K. Ethnobotanical survey of toxic plants and plant parts in Ogun State, Nigeria Intern J Green Pharma 2012; 6(3)
[23] Torres P, Diaz JG, Cárdenas E, Lozano MC. Study of ethnobotanical plants poisonous to cattle in eastern colombia. Intern J Poiso Plant Res 2012; 2: 14-9.

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Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


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