The Open Dermatology Journal




ISSN: 1874-3722 ― Volume 12, 2018
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Synthesis and Evaluation of Herbal Based Hair Dye



Rashmi Saxena Pal*, Yogendra Pal, A.K Rai, Pranay Wal, Ankita Wal
Department of Pharmacy, Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, NH-2, Bhauti, Kanpur (U.P), 209305, India

Abstract

Background:

Herbal based hair dyes are being preferred on large scale, due to the vast number of advantages it exerts to overcome the ill-effects of a chemical based hair dye. We have attempted to prepare and standardize this preparation to ensure its quality as well as stability aspects.

Objective:

The current research was aimed at the preparation of herbal hair dye and the evaluation of its various parameters as organoleptic, physico-chemical, phytoconstituents, rheological aspects, patch test and stability testing for its efficacy and shelf life.

Materials and Methods:

The herbal dye was prepared in-house according to the proposed composition, using all the natural ingredients. The dye was evaluated for its organoleptic, physico-chemical and stability parameters.

Results:

The parameters were found to be comparable and sufficient for the evaluation of herbal dye. The values of different evaluations justified the usage of the hair dye.

Conclusion:

Herbal based hair dye has been prepared and evaluated using the various parameters. It offers a natural alternate, which can be used, irrespective of any side effects. The results can be incorporated while developing the pharmacopoeial standards.

Keywords: Herbal hair dye, Patch test, Organoleptic, Physico- chemical evaluation, Herbal drugs, Chemical hair dye.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 90
Last Page: 98
Publisher Id: TODJ-12-90
DOI: 10.2174/1874372201812010090

Article History:

Received Date: 2/6/2018
Revision Received Date: 21/8/2018
Acceptance Date: 18/9/2018
Electronic publication date: 18/10/2018
Collection year: 2018

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 211
Abstract HTML Views: 142
PDF Downloads: 94
ePub Downloads: 71
Total Views/Downloads: 518

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 141
Abstract HTML Views: 103
PDF Downloads: 76
ePub Downloads: 55
Total Views/Downloads: 375
Geographical View

© 2018 Pal et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmacy, Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, NH-2, Bhauti, Kanpur (U.P), 209305, India, Tel: 9129126459; E-mail: rashmisaxenapal@gmail.com




1. INTRODUCTION

As compared to the chemical based hair dyes, which cause skin and other skin related diseases, natural herbal dyes are being preferred nowadays [1Natural colorants and dye In: Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry 1st Ed. 2004; 1st Ed.1: 98-117.]. Today most of the human beings are very careful about their beauty and hairs play an important role in this. Herbal drugs without any adverse effects are used for healthy hair. Nearly 70% of human beings above 50 years struggle with the problem of balding and graying of hair. In few cases, these symptoms of ageing occur earlier. Graying starts on the skin of head at about 40 years, starting initially from the temples, followed by beard, moustache and finally up to the chest. The age at which graying starts is deeply influenced by heredity. But premature depigmentation in adults is mainly due to variety of other factors, as illness, some specific drugs, shock etc. [2Kumar S, Akhila A, Naqvi AA, Farooqi AH, Singh AK, Uniyal GC, et al. Medicinal plants in skin care 1994; 425-30., 3Orfanos CE, Happle R. Hair and hair diseases 1990; 19-44.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-74612-3] ]. People have been using natural dyes since ancient times for the purpose of dyeing carpets, rugs and clothings by the use of roots, stems, barks, leaves, berries and flowers of various dye yielding plants [4Gulrajani ML. Natural dyes and their applications to textiles 1992; 1-2.]. The need of herbal based natural medicines is increasing fastly due to their natural goodness and lack of side effects. Amla, Bhringraj, Henna, Mandara, Jatamansi, Reetha, Sariva, Curry leaves and Methi seeds are well - known ayurvedic herbal drugs traditionally used as hair colorant and for hair growth [5Ashok D, Vaidya B, Devasagayam T. Current status of herbal drugs in India: An overview. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007; 41(1): 1-11.]. Many different extracts from plant were used for the purpose of hair dyeing in Europe and Asia before the invention of modern dyes. Indigo, known as initial fabric dye, could be mixed with henna to make different light brown to black shades of hair dye [6Khare CP. Indian herbal remedies: Rational western therapy, ayurvedic, and other traditional usage 2003; 89.]. Use of these chemicals can result in unpleasant side effects, such as skin irritation, allergy, hair breakage, skin discoloration, unexpected hair color etc. [7Brown K. Hair colourants. J Soc Cosmet Chem 1982; 33: 375-83.-9Mielke H. Lead-based hair products: Too hazardous for household use. J Am Pharm Assoc 1997.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1086-5802(16)30183-8] ]. Continuous application of such compounds on natural hair causes multiple side effects such as skin irritation, allergy, hair fall, dry scalp, erythrema and also skin cancer [10Balsam MS. Edward sagarin, cosmetics science and technology 1972., 11Koutros S, Silverman DT, Baris D, et al. Hair dye use and risk of bladder cancer in the New England bladder cancer study. Int J Cancer 2011; 129(12): 2894-904.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.26245] [PMID: 21678399] ]. In India, henna has been used traditionally for colouring palms and hairs. There are so many herbs like Kikar, Bihi, Bhringraj, Patnag, Akhrot, Narra, Jaborandi, Jatamansi, Amla, Kuth, Giloe, Behera which are used as a major constituents in hair care preparations mainly meant for dyeing hair [12Kalia AN. Text book of industrial pharmacognosy 2005; 264.-15Nadkarni KM. Indian materia medica 1976; 630-, 680, 1202.]. Henna has been used traditionally for colouring women’s bodies during marriage and other social celebrations since the times of Bronze Age. It is a part of Islamic and Hindu cultures as a hair coloring and dyeing agent for the purpose of decorating the nails or for the formation of temporary skin tattoos [16Al-Suwaidi A, Ahmed H. Determination of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in henna in the United Arab Emirates. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010; 7(4): 1681-93.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7041681] [PMID: 20617053] , 17Polat M, Dikilitaş M, Oztaş P, Alli N. Allergic contact dermatitis to pure henna. Dermatol Online J 2009; 15(1): 15.[PMID: 19281720] ]. Drugs from the plant sources are easily available, are less expensive, safe, and efficient and rarely have side effects [18Kumar KS, Begum A, Shashidhar B, et al. Formulation and evaluation of 100% herbal hair dye. International Journal of Advanced Research In Medical & Pharmaceutical Sciences 2016; (2): ]. In the present era of eco- conservation, the use of natural dyes has been revived and reviewed for the coloration of textiles and food materials [19Mac Dougall Color in food woodhead publishing Ltd 1st Ed.. 2002.1st Ed.., 20Ali NF, El-Mohamedy RSR. Eco-friendly and protective natural dye from red prickly pear (Opuntia lasiacantha Pfeiffer) plant. J Saudi Chem Soc 2010; 15: 257-61.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2010.10.001] ].

2. ROLE OF INGREDIENTS USED IN THE FORMULATION

2.1. Henna

its principle coloring ingredient of is lawsone, a red orange colored compound present in dried leaves of the plant in a concentration of 1 1.5% w/w. Lawsone acts as a non oxidizing hair coloring agent at a maximum concentration of 1.5% in the hair dyeing product. Other constituents in henna such as flavonoids and gallic acid act as organic mordants to the process of colouring. Carbohydrates give the henna paste a suitable consistency for adherence to the hair [21Patel MM, Solanki BR, Gurav NC, Patel PH, Verma SS. Method development for Lawsone estimation in Trichup herbal hair powder by high-performance thin layer chromatography. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2013; 4(3): 160-5.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2231-4040.116780] [PMID: 24083204] , 22S.G. DESIGN AND EVALUTION OF HERBAL HAIR OIL FORMULATIONS BY USING ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Ziziphus jujuba Mill. LEAVES Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2017; 8(3): 322-7.]. Natural henna is usually hypoallergenic but allergic reactions occurred in mixed types including black henna. This occurs due to chemical compounds consisting of para-phenylenediamine¸ 2-nitro-4- phenylenediamine¸ 4-aminophenol and 3-aminophenol [23Saif FA. Henna beyond skin arts: Literatures review. J Pak Assoc Dermatol 2016; 26(1): 58-65.]. Henna has also antifungal activity against Malassezia species (causative organism of dandruff). Henna prevents premature hair fall by balancing the pH of the scalp and graying of hair. Henna leaf paste used for alleviating Jaundice, Skin diseases¸ Smallpox¸ etc. Extract of Henna leaves with ethanol (70%) showed significant hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities in diabetic mice [24Grabley S, Thiericke R. Bioactive agents from natural sources: Trends in discovery and application. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 1999; 64: 101-54.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-49811-7_4] [PMID: 9933977] , 25Chaudhary G¸. Lawsonia inermis Linnaeus: A phytopharmacological review. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res 2013; 2(2): 91-8.].

2.2. Amla

Berries obtained from amla enhances the absorption of calcium, helping to make healthier bones, teeth, nails, and hair. It maintains the hair color and prevents premature graying, strengthens the hair follicles [26Singh E, Sharma S, Pareek A, Dwivedi J, Yadav S, Sharma S. Phytochemistry, traditional uses and cancer chemopreventive activity of amla (Phyllanthus emblica): The sustainer. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011; 2: 176-83.]. Amla is the most rich and concentrated form of Vitamin C along with tannins found among the plants.Whole fruit is used as an active ingredient of the hair care preparations. The Vitamin C found in the fruit binds with tannins that protect it from being lost by heat or light [27Nisha P, Singhal RS, Pandit AB. A study on degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid in amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.) during cooking. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2004; 55(5): 415-22.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480412331321823] [PMID: 15545050] , 28Gopalan C, Sastri BV, Balasubramaniam SC. Nutritive value of indian foods 1991.]. This fruit is also rich in tannins, minerals such as Calcium, Phosphorus, Fe and amino acid. The fruit extract is useful for hair growth and reduce hair loss [29Dahanukar S, Thatte U. Ayurveda Revisited 3rd ed. 3rd ed.2000.]. Amla has antibacterial and antioxidant properties that can help promote the growth of healthy and lustrous hair [30Turner DM. Natural product source material use in the pharmaceutical industry: The Glaxo experience. J Ethnopharmacol 1996; 51(1-3): 39-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(95)01348-2] [PMID: 9213629] ].

2.3. Reetha

Its fruit is rich in vitamin A, D, E, K, saponin, sugars¸ fatty acids and mucilage. Reetha extract is useful for the promotion of hair growth and reduced dandruff [31Anjali J¸. Hair care formulations. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016; 5(6): 630-48.]. Extract of fruit coat acts as a natural shampoo, therefore is used in herbal shampoos in the form of hair cleanser [32Fatima A¸. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013; 4(10): 3746-60.]. Reetha as soapnuts or washing nuts, play an important role as natural hair care products since older times. This plant is enriched with saponins, which makes the hair healthy, shiny, and lustrous when used on regular basis [33Wonderful benefits and uses Of soapnuts (Reetha). Home, health and wellness, ingredients and uses http://www.stylecraze.com/articles/ benefits-of-soapnuts-for-skin-hair-and-health/#gref].

2.4. Shikakai

It contains Lupeol, Spinasterol, Lactone, Hexacosanol, Spinasterone, Calyctomine, Racimase-A Oleanolic acid, Lupenone, Betulin, Betulinic acid, Betulonic acid. The extract obtained from its pods is used as a hair cleanser and for the control of dandruff [34Fatima A, Alok S, Agarwal P, Singh P, Verma A. Benefits of herbal extracts in cosmetics: A review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013; 4(10): 3746-60.]. Shikakai or acacia concinna, has rich amount of vitamin C, which is beneficial for hair. Shikakai naturally lowers the pH value and retains the natural oils of the hair and keeps them lustrous and healthy. It is also effective in strengthening and conditioning hair.Amla, reetha and shikakai compliments each other, therefore, they are mixed together to have healthy and lustrous hair. All of these ingredients come in two forms, one as a dried fruit and other in powdered form. Amla, Reetha and Shikakai suit all hair types and help prevent split ends, hair fall, dandruff, greying of hair and other hair related problems, to make hair soft and silky [35Haircare: Include amla, reetha and Shikakai for healthy and happy hair. NDTV FOOD. Anusha Singh updated: May 10, 2018 Available from: https://food.ndtv.com/beauty/haircare-include-amla-reetha-and-shikakai-for-healthy-and-happy-hair-1848507].

2.5. Coffee

In hair colorants, herbs can be used in the form of powder [36Upadhyay VP, Mishra AK. Workshop on selected medicinal plants. 1985. In: Ministry of Commerce, Chemexcil; Bombay. 1985.], aqueous extract [37Upadhyay VP. Current research in ayurvedic medicine (International Seminar). 1980. In: Himalayan Institute; Chicago, USA. 1980.]or their seed oil to impart shades of different colour varying from reddish brown to blackish brown [38Upadhyay VP. International Seminar on Medicinal Plants. Plants as cosmetics 1985. In: Mungpoo, Govt. of West Bengal: Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR,; New Delhi. 1985.]. The herbal drugs like coffee powder [39Wealth of India. Raw materials. Anonymus 1997; 1, 40Kitrikar K, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants 2nd ed. 2nd ed.1993; Vol. I: 335-6.] obtained from its seeds are used as hair colorants [41Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of indian medicinal plant 1956., 42Ambasta ST. Useful plants of india 1986.].

2.6. Tea

Being rich in polyphenols, selenium, copper, phytoestrogens, melatonin [43Trüeb RM. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair. Clin Interv Aging 2006; 1(2): 121-9.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/ciia.2006.1.2.121] [PMID: 18044109] ], tea also has been used in traditional Chinese medicine [44Chein E. Age reversal, from hormones to telomeres 1998.] and in Ayurvedic medicine has been used since long as hair colourant [45Lurie R, Ben-Amitai D, Laron Z. Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity): a unique model to explore the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency on human hair. Dermatology (Basel) 2004; 208(4): 314-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000077839] [PMID: 15178913] ].

2.7. Hibiscus

It is excellent for increase in hair growth activity. Hibiscus is naturally enriched with Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Vitamin B1, Vitamin C¸ Riboflavin and Niacin, which help to promote thicker hair growth and decreases premature graying of hair [46Banerjee PS. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of selected drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. J Chem Pharm Res 2009; 1(1): 261-7.]. This flower is used for controlling dandruff. Hibiscus exhibits antioxidant properties by producing flavonoids such as anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds. It can be used to rejuvenate the hair by conditioning it [47Dweck AC. On the Centella asicatica trail. Soap. Perfumery and Cosmetics Asia 1996; 1: 41-2.].

2.8. Bhringraj

Treatment with 5% of petroleum ether extract of bhringraj initiates greater number of hair follicles [48Khare CP. Encyclopedia of indian medicinal plants 2004; 197-8.]. The oil based extract of leaves has been used traditionally for improving hair growth and for imparting natural colour to grey hair. Neelibhringaadi Tailam, mentioned in Ayurveda is suitable for promoting hair growth and for providing natural colour to grey hair [49Williamson EM. Major herbs Of ayurveda 2002; 126-8.]. Bhringraj is used in the preparation of various oil, shampoo, hair dye etc. [50Porwal P, Sharma A, Gupta SP. Henna based cream preparation, characterization and its comparison with marketed hair dyes. J Herbal Med Tech 2011; 5(1): 55-61.-52Baziga KA, Heyan SA. Formulation and evaluation of herbal shampoo from zizyphus spine leaves extract. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2011; 2(6): 1802-6.].

2.9. Jatamansi

Nardostachys jatamansi is an important drug of Ayurveda and is used in different traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, etc. [53Subedi BP, Shrestha R. Plant profile: Jatamansi (nardostachys grandiflora). Himalayan Bioresources 1999; 3: 14-5.]. Its rhizomes and roots are used as a tranquilizer, laxative, cardiac tonic, for curing vertigo, nervous headache, low and high blood pressure, etc. [54Chaudhary S, Chandrashekar KS, Pai KS, et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer activity of extract and fractions of Nardostachys jatamansi DC in breast carcinoma. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015; 15: 50.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0563-1] [PMID: 25886964] ]. The rhizomes as well as roots of the plant are medicinally rich and therefore, have been the focus of chemical studies [55Purnima BM. Kothiyal P. A review article on phytochemistry and pharmacological profiles of Nardostachys jatamansi DC-medicinal herb. Journal of pharmacognosy and phytochemistry 2015; 3(5): 102-6.].

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS

For the preparation of herbal hair dye, we have selected nine important ingredients such as Henna, Reetha, Coffee, Tea, Shikakai, Amla, Hibiscus, Bhringraj and Jatamansi. Henna leaves and flowers of hibiscus were collected from the herbal garden of PSIT. They were authenticated for their quality in the Pharmacognosy lab of the Institute. Reetha, coffee, tea, shikakai, amla, bhringraj and jatamansi all in the powdered forms were procured from the authorized stores of the local market in the powdered form. Henna leaves and the flowers of Hibiscus were shade dried and coarsely powdered. Then all the ingredients were mixed uniformly to prepare a homogenous formulation. The composition of the formulation is reflected in the Table 1.

Table 1
Ingredients of the prepared herbal hair dye.


Fig. (1)
Ingredients of the herbal hair dye.


3.1. Application of Hair Dye

The pack, which is in the form of powder, should be used weekly on wet hair, forming a paste of in water with optimum consistency. It should be applied evenly on the hair with the help of a brush, covering the roots to the hair tip. The scalp should be covered. It should be left for 2-3 hours on the scalp for complete drying. Then it should be removed by washing with plain water [56Pal RS, Pal Y, Wal P. In-house preparation and standardization of herbal face pack. Open Dermatol J 2017; 11: 72-80.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874372201711010072] ].

3.2. Evaluation of the Herbal Hair Dye

The prepared herbal hair dye was evaluated for its various parameters, such as organoleptic, physico-chemical, phytoconstituents and the rheological aspects.

3.2.1. Organoleptic Evaluation

Organoleptic characteristics for various sensory characters like color, taste, odour etc. was carefully noted down [57Wallis TE. Text book of Pharmacognosy 5th Ed.. 2002; 5th Ed..123(132): 210-5.-59Tandon N, Sharma M. Quality standards of indian medicinal plants. New Delhi. Indian Council of Medical Research 2010; 8: 161-3.]. as illustrated in Table 2 The raw drugs and powders were separately studied by organoleptic and morphological characters like colour, odour, texture and appearance.

Table 2
Organoleptic evaluation of herbal dye.


3.2.2. Physico-Chemical Evaluation

The physical and chemical features of the herbal hair dye were evaluated to determine the pH, its moisture content and its ash value for the purpose of stability, compatibility and the amount of inorganic matter present in it. Table 3 reflects the above findings.

Table 3
Physico-chemical evaluation of herbal dye.


3.2.3. Phytochemical Evaluation

Prepared herbal hair dye was subjected to Phytochemical screening to reveal the presence or absence of various phytoconstituents as Carbohydrates, Lipids, Alkaloids, Sugars etc. The formulation when dissolved individually in 5 ml of water and filtered; the filtrates were used to test the presence of carbohydrates [60Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy 42nd ed.. 42nd ed..2008; 6: 1-A1.]. The aqueous extract of the formulated herbal face pack was evaluated for the presence or absence of different phytoconstituents as per the standard procedures and norms [61Khandelwal KR. Practical pharmacognosy 12th ed. 12th ed.2004.]. The results of phytochemical screening are highlighted in Table 4.

Table 4
Phytochemical evaluation of herbal dye.


3.2.4. Rheological Evaluation

Physical parameters like untapped or bulk density, tapped density, the angle of repose, Hausner's ratio, and carr's index were observed and calculated for the inhouse formulation. Bulk density symbolizes the adjustment of particles or granules collectively in the packed form. The formula for determination of bulk Density (D) is D = M/ V where M is the mass of particles and V the total volume occupied by them. This is determined by taking graduated cylinder. 100 grams of weighed formulation was added to the cylinder with the help of a funnel. The initial volume was noted and the sample was then tapped fully. The bulk density value was obtained from the initial volume and after tapping the volume noticed, from which tapped density was calculated. The angle of repose quantifies the flow properties of powder as it affects cohesion among the different particles. The fixed funnel cone method employs the calculation of Height (H) above the paper that is placed on a flat surface. The pack was carefully poured through the funnel till the formation of the peak. Here, R denotes the radius of the conical heap, tan a = H/R or a = arc tan H/R, where ‘a’ is the angle of repose. Hausner's ratio is linked with the interparticle friction and influences the powder flow properties. The Hausner's ratio is calculated as D /D' where D' is the tapped density and D, the bulk density. Carr's index helps to measure powder flow from bulk density [62Lachman L, Lieberman HA, Kanig JL. The Theory and practice of industrial pharmacy 3rd ed. 3rd ed.1987., 63Aulton ME. 2002.] as shown in Table 5.

Table 5
Rheological evaluation of herbal dye.


3.3. Patch Test

This usually involves dabbing a small amount of the aqueous solution of hair dye behind the ear or on inner elbow in an area of 1sq.cm and leaving it to dry. Signs of irritation or feeing of non wellness is noted, if any.Measured and small quantities of prepared hair pack were applied to the specified area for a fixed time. Irritancy, redness, and swelling were checked and noticed for regular intervals up to 24 hours if any [64Mandeep S, Shalini S, Sukhbir LK, Ram KS, Rajendra J. Preparation and evaluation of herbal cosmetic cream. Pharmacologyonline 2011; 1258-64.]. The results of tests for the signs of irritation are displayed in Table 6.

Table 6
Patch test.


3.4. Stability Test

Stability testing of the prepared formulation was performed by storing it at different temperature conditions for the time period of one month. The packed glass vials of formulation were stored at different temperature conditions viz., room temperature and 35°C and were evaluated for the physical parameters like colour, odour, pH, texture, and smoothness as highlighted in Table 7 [65Rani S, Hiremanth R. Formulation & evaluation of poly-herbal face wash gel. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015; 4(6): 585-8.].

Table 7
Stability test.


4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1. Uses of Hair Dye

The prepared herbal hair dye contains all the goodness of natural ingredients. Apart from acting as a hair dye, this formulation, because of the perfect blend of herbals, also acts as a hair growth promoter, hair nourisher, conditioner and anti-dandruff agent as well. Henna acting as the base powder, acts as the universal hair dye as it used for its colouring properties throughout the globe. It is also beneficial in the removal of excess oil from the scalp and conditions the hair well. Reetha restores the health of dull, dry, and damaged hair. Bhringraj aids in improving the circulation of blood flow at the root of the hair by providing more nutrients to support hair growth. The extract of jatamansi is helpful in the growth of hair. It is beneficial for smooth, silky and healthy hair too. Shikakai is packed with vitamins A, C, D and K, which together form a powerful antioxidant. This antioxidant is probably the only thing your hair needs to cleanse the scalp of the sebum buildup, unclog pores, kill infection-causing bacteria and stimulate hair growth. Regular using of hibiscus flower juice can easily restrict hair fall control, dandruff and graying of hair even when you are touching 50 years of age. This is an age-old remedy for all those people who have been struggling for healthy hair that is free from grey hair. It also contains essential fatty acids, which strengthen hair follicles and provides shine and new life. The sufficient amount of vitamin C in amla helps to halt pre-mature greying. It is a great hair conditioner and also remover of dandruff. Tea imparts perfect colour to the hair in combination with other herbs. It is good for the growth of hair and fights against dandruff. Coffee for hair strengthens hair by improving the overall quality and texture of it. It is absorbed by the follicles, making them softer and shinier, instantly. Organoleptic evaluation findings revealed that the pack is smooth and pleasant smelling powder. Physicochemical parameters reflected that the moisture content was as minimal as 1.9%. pH was found neutral to suit the requirements of different scalp types. Ash value was found to be nominal, signifying the presence of inorganic radicals in appropriate amounts. It shows the presence of major phytoconstituents, which acts as true nourisher for the scalp as well as hair. Irritancy test revealed negative results for irritancy, redness and swelling as the herbals in their natural form without use of artificial additives were found to be compatible with the proteins of hair Stability tests performed at different temperatures over a regular period of one month disclosed the inert nature of the pack in the terms of colour, odour, appearance, texture, and pH. From the above observations, it has been signified that since the formulation is constituted with naturally occurring dried herbal ingredients, there are almost minimal possibilities of the deterioration of the formulation, as there is no moisture containing substance in either raw or processed form. The formulation was kept for one month at room temperature to observe the changes in its color, odour,texture and appearance. The pH was also noticed before and after one month. The formulation was found to be stable. It can be easily stored and used at any temperature, at any place. Since it is a natural herbal based formulation, it is free from the ill-effects of ammonia based chemical dyes. However, the regular use of it provides voluminous, smooth and well coloured hair. Its continuous use shows superb effects later on. Since natural ingredients are known for their non-toxic, non-habit forming properties and no chemicals, preservatives, artificial colors or perfumes has been incorporated in the pack, the chances of its degradation are almost close to the minimal. This leads to an increased shelf life with stable ingredients.

CONCLUSION

A herbal hair pack colours the hair in an utmost gentle manner.The advantages of herbal based cosmetics are their nontoxic nature. It nutrifies the skin of the scalp and hair. This hair formulation provides vital nourishment to the skin. It helps to treat dandruff by removal of excess oil from scalp. Frequent use of this pack leads to manageable, frizz free coloured hair. Pollution, ageing, stress and harsh climates badly affect the quality of hair. In this research, we found effective properties of the herbal hair pack and further studies are needed to be performed to explore more useful benefits of this herbal hair pack. Natural remedies are widely accepted with open hands nowadays as they are safer with minimal side effects as compared to the chemical based products. Herbal formulations are in great demand to fulfill the needs of the growing world market. It is a noticeable attempt to formulate the herbal hair pack containing the goodness of powders of different plants, which are excellent for hair care.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

Not applicable.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No Animals/Humans were used for studies that are base of this research.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

REFERENCES

[1] Natural colorants and dye In: Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry 1st Ed. 2004; 1st Ed.1: 98-117.
[2] Kumar S, Akhila A, Naqvi AA, Farooqi AH, Singh AK, Uniyal GC, et al. Medicinal plants in skin care 1994; 425-30.
[3] Orfanos CE, Happle R. Hair and hair diseases 1990; 19-44.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-74612-3]
[4] Gulrajani ML. Natural dyes and their applications to textiles 1992; 1-2.
[5] Ashok D, Vaidya B, Devasagayam T. Current status of herbal drugs in India: An overview. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007; 41(1): 1-11.
[6] Khare CP. Indian herbal remedies: Rational western therapy, ayurvedic, and other traditional usage 2003; 89.
[7] Brown K. Hair colourants. J Soc Cosmet Chem 1982; 33: 375-83.
[8] Madhusudan RY, Sujatha P. Formulation and evaluation of commonly used natural hair colorants. Nat Prod Rad 2008; 7(1): 45-8.
[9] Mielke H. Lead-based hair products: Too hazardous for household use. J Am Pharm Assoc 1997.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1086-5802(16)30183-8]
[10] Balsam MS. Edward sagarin, cosmetics science and technology 1972.
[11] Koutros S, Silverman DT, Baris D, et al. Hair dye use and risk of bladder cancer in the New England bladder cancer study. Int J Cancer 2011; 129(12): 2894-904.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.26245] [PMID: 21678399]
[12] Kalia AN. Text book of industrial pharmacognosy 2005; 264.
[13] Kumar S, Akhila A, Naqvi AA, Forooqi AHA, Singh AK, Singh D. Medicinal plants in skin care 1994; 51-62.
[14] Baran R, Maibah HI. Cosmetic dermatology in children Text book of cosmetic dermatology 2nd ed. 2nd ed.1998; 507-8.
[15] Nadkarni KM. Indian materia medica 1976; 630-, 680, 1202.
[16] Al-Suwaidi A, Ahmed H. Determination of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in henna in the United Arab Emirates. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010; 7(4): 1681-93.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7041681] [PMID: 20617053]
[17] Polat M, Dikilitaş M, Oztaş P, Alli N. Allergic contact dermatitis to pure henna. Dermatol Online J 2009; 15(1): 15.[PMID: 19281720]
[18] Kumar KS, Begum A, Shashidhar B, et al. Formulation and evaluation of 100% herbal hair dye. International Journal of Advanced Research In Medical & Pharmaceutical Sciences 2016; (2):
[19] Mac Dougall Color in food woodhead publishing Ltd 1st Ed.. 2002.1st Ed..
[20] Ali NF, El-Mohamedy RSR. Eco-friendly and protective natural dye from red prickly pear (Opuntia lasiacantha Pfeiffer) plant. J Saudi Chem Soc 2010; 15: 257-61.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2010.10.001]
[21] Patel MM, Solanki BR, Gurav NC, Patel PH, Verma SS. Method development for Lawsone estimation in Trichup herbal hair powder by high-performance thin layer chromatography. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2013; 4(3): 160-5.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2231-4040.116780] [PMID: 24083204]
[22] S.G. DESIGN AND EVALUTION OF HERBAL HAIR OIL FORMULATIONS BY USING ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Ziziphus jujuba Mill. LEAVES Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2017; 8(3): 322-7.
[23] Saif FA. Henna beyond skin arts: Literatures review. J Pak Assoc Dermatol 2016; 26(1): 58-65.
[24] Grabley S, Thiericke R. Bioactive agents from natural sources: Trends in discovery and application. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 1999; 64: 101-54.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-49811-7_4] [PMID: 9933977]
[25] Chaudhary G¸. Lawsonia inermis Linnaeus: A phytopharmacological review. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res 2013; 2(2): 91-8.
[26] Singh E, Sharma S, Pareek A, Dwivedi J, Yadav S, Sharma S. Phytochemistry, traditional uses and cancer chemopreventive activity of amla (Phyllanthus emblica): The sustainer. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011; 2: 176-83.
[27] Nisha P, Singhal RS, Pandit AB. A study on degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid in amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.) during cooking. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2004; 55(5): 415-22.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637480412331321823] [PMID: 15545050]
[28] Gopalan C, Sastri BV, Balasubramaniam SC. Nutritive value of indian foods 1991.
[29] Dahanukar S, Thatte U. Ayurveda Revisited 3rd ed. 3rd ed.2000.
[30] Turner DM. Natural product source material use in the pharmaceutical industry: The Glaxo experience. J Ethnopharmacol 1996; 51(1-3): 39-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(95)01348-2] [PMID: 9213629]
[31] Anjali J¸. Hair care formulations. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016; 5(6): 630-48.
[32] Fatima A¸. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013; 4(10): 3746-60.
[33] Wonderful benefits and uses Of soapnuts (Reetha). Home, health and wellness, ingredients and uses http://www.stylecraze.com/articles/ benefits-of-soapnuts-for-skin-hair-and-health/#gref
[34] Fatima A, Alok S, Agarwal P, Singh P, Verma A. Benefits of herbal extracts in cosmetics: A review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013; 4(10): 3746-60.
[35] Haircare: Include amla, reetha and Shikakai for healthy and happy hair. NDTV FOOD. Anusha Singh updated: May 10, 2018 Available from: https://food.ndtv.com/beauty/haircare-include-amla-reetha-and-shikakai-for-healthy-and-happy-hair-1848507
[36] Upadhyay VP, Mishra AK. Workshop on selected medicinal plants. 1985. In: Ministry of Commerce, Chemexcil; Bombay. 1985.
[37] Upadhyay VP. Current research in ayurvedic medicine (International Seminar). 1980. In: Himalayan Institute; Chicago, USA. 1980.
[38] Upadhyay VP. International Seminar on Medicinal Plants. Plants as cosmetics 1985. In: Mungpoo, Govt. of West Bengal: Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR,; New Delhi. 1985.
[39] Wealth of India. Raw materials. Anonymus 1997; 1
[40] Kitrikar K, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants 2nd ed. 2nd ed.1993; Vol. I: 335-6.
[41] Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of indian medicinal plant 1956.
[42] Ambasta ST. Useful plants of india 1986.
[43] Trüeb RM. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair. Clin Interv Aging 2006; 1(2): 121-9.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/ciia.2006.1.2.121] [PMID: 18044109]
[44] Chein E. Age reversal, from hormones to telomeres 1998.
[45] Lurie R, Ben-Amitai D, Laron Z. Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity): a unique model to explore the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency on human hair. Dermatology (Basel) 2004; 208(4): 314-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000077839] [PMID: 15178913]
[46] Banerjee PS. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of selected drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. J Chem Pharm Res 2009; 1(1): 261-7.
[47] Dweck AC. On the Centella asicatica trail. Soap. Perfumery and Cosmetics Asia 1996; 1: 41-2.
[48] Khare CP. Encyclopedia of indian medicinal plants 2004; 197-8.
[49] Williamson EM. Major herbs Of ayurveda 2002; 126-8.
[50] Porwal P, Sharma A, Gupta SP. Henna based cream preparation, characterization and its comparison with marketed hair dyes. J Herbal Med Tech 2011; 5(1): 55-61.
[51] Banerjee P, Sharma M. Preparation, evaluation and hair growth stimulating activity of herbal oil. J Chem Pharm Res 2009; 1(1): 261-7.
[52] Baziga KA, Heyan SA. Formulation and evaluation of herbal shampoo from zizyphus spine leaves extract. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2011; 2(6): 1802-6.
[53] Subedi BP, Shrestha R. Plant profile: Jatamansi (nardostachys grandiflora). Himalayan Bioresources 1999; 3: 14-5.
[54] Chaudhary S, Chandrashekar KS, Pai KS, et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer activity of extract and fractions of Nardostachys jatamansi DC in breast carcinoma. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015; 15: 50.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0563-1] [PMID: 25886964]
[55] Purnima BM. Kothiyal P. A review article on phytochemistry and pharmacological profiles of Nardostachys jatamansi DC-medicinal herb. Journal of pharmacognosy and phytochemistry 2015; 3(5): 102-6.
[56] Pal RS, Pal Y, Wal P. In-house preparation and standardization of herbal face pack. Open Dermatol J 2017; 11: 72-80.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874372201711010072]
[57] Wallis TE. Text book of Pharmacognosy 5th Ed.. 2002; 5th Ed..123(132): 210-5.
[58] Rajpal V. Standardization of botanicals. New Delhi. Eastern Publishers 2002; 1: 39-44.
[59] Tandon N, Sharma M. Quality standards of indian medicinal plants. New Delhi. Indian Council of Medical Research 2010; 8: 161-3.
[60] Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy 42nd ed.. 42nd ed..2008; 6: 1-A1.
[61] Khandelwal KR. Practical pharmacognosy 12th ed. 12th ed.2004.
[62] Lachman L, Lieberman HA, Kanig JL. The Theory and practice of industrial pharmacy 3rd ed. 3rd ed.1987.
[63] Aulton ME. 2002.
[64] Mandeep S, Shalini S, Sukhbir LK, Ram KS, Rajendra J. Preparation and evaluation of herbal cosmetic cream. Pharmacologyonline 2011; 1258-64.
[65] Rani S, Hiremanth R. Formulation & evaluation of poly-herbal face wash gel. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015; 4(6): 585-8.

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Advertisements


Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.com
Copyright © 2018 Bentham Open