The Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal




ISSN: 1874-1045 ― Volume 12, 2018
REVIEW ARTICLE

Therapeutic Potential of Prodrugs Towards Targeted Drug Delivery



Abhinav P. Mishra*, Suresh Chandra, Ruchi Tiwari, Ashish Srivastava, Gaurav Tiwari
Department of Pharmacy, Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, Kanpur-Agra-Delhi National Highway (NH-2), Bhauti, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract

In designing of Prodrugs, targeting can be achieved in two ways: site-specified drug delivery and site-specific drug bioactivation. Prodrugs can be designed to target specific enzymes or carriers by considering enzyme-substrate specificity or carrier-substrate specificity in order to overcome various undesirable drug properties. There are certain techniques which are used for tumor targeting such as Antibody Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy [ADEPT] Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy [GDEPT], Virus Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy [VDEPT] and Gene Prodrug Activation Therapy [GPAT]. Our review focuses on the Prodrugs used in site-specific drug delivery system specially on tumor targeting.

Keywords: Prodrug, Xenobiotics, Cytotoxic, ADEPT, GDEPT, GPAT, VDEPT, NTR.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 111
Last Page: 123
Publisher Id: TOMCJ-12-111
DOI: 10.2174/1874104501812010111

Article History:

Received Date: 15/7/2018
Revision Received Date: 18/9/2018
Acceptance Date: 20/9/2018
Electronic publication date: 23/10/2018
Collection year: 2018

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 193
Abstract HTML Views: 114
PDF Downloads: 94
ePub Downloads: 44
Total Views/Downloads: 445

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 137
Abstract HTML Views: 82
PDF Downloads: 72
ePub Downloads: 32
Total Views/Downloads: 323
Geographical View

© 2018 Mishra et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. 0 International Public License (CC-BY 4. 0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4. 0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this authors at the Department of Pharmacy, Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, Kanpur-Agra-Delhi National Highway (NH-2), Bhauti, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India; E-mail: abhinavmph@gmail.com




1. INTRODUCTION

As per definition given by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), Prodrugs are the chemically modified active drug that has to produce biological and chemical transformation before showing the pharmacological responses [1Zawilska, J.B.; Wojcieszak, J.; Olejniczak, A.B. Prodrugs: A challenge for the drug development. Pharmacol. Rep., 2013, 65(1), 1-14.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1734-1140(13)70959-9] [PMID: 23563019] ]. The prodrugs can be thought of a molecule containing nontoxic groups that are required for eliminating the undesirable effect [2Jana, S.; Mandlekar, S.; Marathe, P. Prodrug design to improve pharmacokinetic and drug delivery properties: Challenges to the discovery scientists. Curr. Med. Chem., 2010, 17(32), 3874-3908.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986710793205426] [PMID: 20858214] ]. Furthermore, advanced and sophisticated prodrug design can confer the better pharmacokinetic parameters, prolonged action, increased selectivity, increased membrane permeability, less adverse effects, etc [3Rautio, J.; Kumpulainen, H.; Heimbach, T.; Oliyai, R.; Oh, D.; Järvinen, T.; Savolainen, J. Prodrugs: Design and clinical applications. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov., 2008, 7(3), 255-270.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrd2468] [PMID: 18219308] ]. As of now, 5-7% of the drugs that have been approved are the prodrugs. In majority of cases, prodrugs have been found to be a simple chemical derivative that needs one or two enzymatic or chemical transformation for yielding the active drug [4Hsieh, P.W.; Hung, C.F.; Fang, J.Y. Current prodrug design for drug discovery. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2009, 15(19), 2236-2250.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161209788682523] [PMID: 19601825] ].

Targeted or site-specific drug delivery is one of the basic requirements in controlled drug delivery. In designing of prodrugs, targeting can be achieved by site-directed or site-specific drug bioactivation, such as localized drug delivery for ophthalmic preparation. Prodrugs may be designed for targeting specific enzymes or their carriers by acting on enzyme-substrate specificity or carrier-substrate specificity in order to minimize undesirable drug responses [5Kratz, F.; Müller, I.A.; Ryppa, C.; Warnecke, A. Prodrug strategies in anticancer chemotherapy. ChemMedChem, 2008, 3(1), 20-53.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.200700159] [PMID: 17963208] ]. This type of “targeted-prodrug” requires remarkable knowledge of particular enzymes or carrier systems [6Zee-Cheng, R.K.; Cheng, C.C. Delivery of anticancer drugs. Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol., 1989, 11(7-8), 439-529.[PMID: 2689812] ].

2. TYPES OF DRUG TARGETING

2.1. Tumor Targeting

Selective delivery of anticancer drugs to tumors, without affecting to normal tissues of the body, is one of the major challenges in the treatment of tumor [7Freeman, A.I.; Mayhew, E. Targeted drug delivery. Cancer, 1986, 58(2)(Suppl.), 573-583.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19860715)58:2+<573::AID-CNCR2820581328>3.0.CO;2-C] [PMID: 3521839] ]. Synthesis of Prodrugs and their targeting towards specific enzymes based on monoclonal antibodies produces considerable flexibility in experimental designing [8Zawilska, J.B.; Wojcieszak, J.; Olejniczak, A.B. Prodrugs: A challenge for the drug development. Pharmacol. Rep., 2013, 65(1), 1-14.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1734-1140(13)70959-9] [PMID: 23563019] ].

2.2. Brain Targeting

This is a general and systematic delivery method which can provide sustained release localized effect for a variety of therapeutic agents especially for neuropeptides [9Rautio, J.; Kumpulainen, H.; Heimbach, T.; Oliyai, R.; Oh, D.; Järvinen, T.; Savolainen, J. Prodrugs: Design and clinical applications. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov., 2008, 7(3), 255-270.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrd2468] [PMID: 18219308] ]. With the help of using a sequential approach for drug metabolism, they help to exploit the specific properties of the blood-brain barrier and also provide site-specificity or site-enhanced targeting of the drug substance [10Müller, C.E. Prodrug approaches for enhancing the bioavailability of drugs with low solubility. Chem. Biodivers., 2009, 6(11), 2071-2083.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.200900114] [PMID: 19937841] ].

2.3. Kidney Targeting

Renal-specific drug targeting of prodrugs may be an attractive approach in conditions when the drug reaches the kidney cause undesirable extrarenal effects or when renal abnormalities conditions such as in improper GFR, and tubular secretion which may affect the normal renal distribution of a drug to great extent (Fig. 1) [11Hsieh, P.W.; Hung, C.F.; Fang, J.Y. Current prodrug design for drug discovery. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2009, 15(19), 2236-2250.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161209788682523] [PMID: 19601825] ].

Fig. (1)
Principle of chemical drug delivery system (CDS).


2.4. Colon Targeting

The colon is an only site in our body where both topical, as well as systemic delivery of drugs, can take place. Topical delivery provides local responses in the management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). However, treatment can be more effective if the drugs can be made for direct targeting into the colon with minimized systemic side effects. In addition to topical therapy, the colon can also be used as a portal for the entry of drugs into the systemic circulation (Tables 1, 2) [12Huttunen, K.M.; Rautio, J. Prodrugs - An efficient way to breach delivery and targeting barriers. Curr. Top. Med. Chem., 2011, 11(18), 2265-2287.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/156802611797183230] [PMID: 21671868] ].

Table 1
Colon targeting sites, diseases and drugs for their therapy.


Table 2
Examples of prodrugs used for site specific drug targeting.


3. VARIOUS TECHNIQUES OF PRODRUGS EMPLOYED IN TUMOR TARGETING

Nowadays, accurate tumor targeting plays a fundamental role in the therapy of tumors. Precise tumor targeting is required for maximum action with least toxicity. In recent times, several techniques of prodrugs are employed for such purposes, which are as follows:

3.1. Hypoxia Selective Prodrug Therapy

According to the research, in a solid tumor, there is highly irregular blood flow, with the development of oxygen-deficit areas (hypoxia) which is responsible for poor drug delivery thus hypoxic cells may be treated as therapeutic targets for tumor targeting with the help of bioreductive prodrugs. These therapeutic targets for hypoxia-selective drugs depend upon the presence of highly expressed reductase enzymes in tumor cells which reduce bioreductive prodrugs into active cytotoxic radicals under influence of hypoxia (Table 3) [13Mowday, A.M.; Ashoorzadeh, A.; Williams, E.M.; Copp, J.N.; Silva, S.; Bull, M.R.; Abbattista, M.R.; Anderson, R.F.; Flanagan, J.U.; Guise, C.P.; Ackerley, D.F.; Smaill, J.B.; Patterson, A.V. Rational design of an AKR1C3-resistant analog of PR-104 for enzyme-prodrug therapy. Biochem. Pharmacol., 2016, 116(116), 176-187.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2016.07.015] [PMID: 27453434] , 14Albertella, M.R.; Loadman, P.M.; Jones, P.H.; Phillips, R.M.; Rampling, R.; Burnet, N.; Alcock, C.; Anthoney, A.; Vjaters, E.; Dunk, C.R.; Harris, P.A.; Wong, A.; Lalani, A.S.; Twelves, C.J. Hypoxia-selective targeting by the bioreductive prodrug AQ4N in patients with solid tumors: Results of a phase I study. Clin. Cancer Res., 2008, 14(4), 1096-1104.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4020] [PMID: 18281542] ]. Under aerobic conditions of normal cells, the radicals oxidized to the nontoxic prodrug with the production of superoxide radical. There are only three types of hypoxia- selective prodrugs that can be used or being developed for their clinical use: Quinine derivatives, Nitroimidazoles, and N-oxides [15Patterson, L.H.; McKeown, S.R. AQ4N: A new approach to hypoxia-activated cancer chemotherapy. Br. J. Cancer, 2000, 83(12), 1589-1593.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/bjoc.2000.1564] [PMID: 11104551] ]. The N-oxide derivative like Tirapazamide (TPZ) is the first drug to be introduced for hypoxia selective Prodrug in the presence of cytochrome P450, NADPH, oxidoreductase, xanthine oxidase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Tirapazamide (TPZ) is biologically reduced to mono deoxygenated toxic products. Under hypoxia, the oxidizing (Fig. 2) radical leads to the breaking of strands of DNA, which kills the tumor cell [16Napier, M.P.; Sharma, S.K.; Springer, C.J.; Bagshawe, K.D.; Green, A.J.; Martin, J.; Stribbling, S.M.; Cushen, N.; O’Malley, D.; Begent, R.H. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: Efficacy and mechanism of action in colorectal carcinoma. Clin. Cancer Res., 2000, 6(3), 765-772.[PMID: 10741695] ].

Table 3
Other examples of hypoxia selective prodrugs used for tumor targeting.


Fig. (2)
Scheme showing mechanism of action hypoxia selective prodrug (Tirapazamide).


3.2. Antibody-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (ADEPT)

To improve the selectivity of anticancer drugs, Antibody-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (ADEPT) is a therapeutic strategy for targeting tumors. Selectivity for the target In ADEPT is achieved by an antibody (Ab) in an Ab-enzyme complex which binds to the specific antigen situated on the surface of tumor cells. The two-phase antibody targeting system in ADEPT is advantageous over a one-step chemo or radiotherapy [17Bagshawe, K.D. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) for cancer. Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther., 2006, 6(10), 1421-1431.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14737140.6.10.1421] [PMID: 17069527] ]. Phase I- In this phase, the Ab-enzyme complex is administered that accumulates at the tumor site. For the particular tumor cell, a specific targeted antibody has been used and the enzyme chosen for the conjugate [18Connors, T.A. The choice of prodrugs for gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer. Gene Ther., 1995, 2(10), 702-709.[PMID: 8750009] ] is one that will be used to break the carrier group leave off from the prodrug available in the next phase (Fig. 3). Phase II- after the Ab -enzyme complex has stuck on the tumor cell and the excess conjugate is removed from the blood and normal tissues, then prodrug is administered. The enzyme conjugated with the body at the tumor cell surface bioactivated the conversion of the prodrug to the drug when it reaches the tumor cell (Fig. 4) [19Grove, J.I.; Searle, P.F.; Weedon, S.J.; Green, N.K.; McNeish, I.A.; Kerr, D.J. Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy using CB1954. Anticancer Drug Des., 1999, 14(6), 461-472.[PMID: 10834268] ]. The main advantages of this therapy are to enhance selectivity for targeted cell. A Single enzyme is capable to convert a number of prodrugs molecules. The drug is released at the site of action. The main disadvantages are immunogenicity and rejection of antibody-enzyme conjugate.

Fig. (3)
Formation of antibody enzyme complex (Abzyme).


Fig. (4)
Conversion of prodrug to drug (cytotoxic) and occurrence of death of tumor-affected cell.


3.3. Components of ADEPT

Enzymes in ADEPT Specific enzymes are required for ADEPT technique. They should be able to catalyze the conversion of prodrug. From any endogenous enzyme, they should have different catalytic properties. Under any physiological conditions, they should be active and stable. They also prove to be significantly beneficial if they are capable to activate the majority of anticancer prodrugs (Table 4) [20Minton, N.P.; Mauchline, M.L.; Lemmon, M.J.; Brehm, J.K.; Fox, M.; Michael, N.P.; Giaccia, A.; Brown, J.M. Chemotherapeutic tumour targeting using clostridial spores. FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 1995, 17(3), 357-364.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.1995.tb00219.x] [PMID: 7576773] ]. Three different categories of enzymes are used for ADEPT (i) enzyme and their homologues originated from other than mammalian species, e.g., β-lactamase (β-L); Penicillin G Amidase (PGA); Carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2); Cytosine Deaminase (CD) and Penicillin V Amidase (PVA). To minimize the toxicity, these enzymes reduce the risk of activation of the Prodrug by its endogenous enzymes which are present in vascular and normal tissues [21Sharma, S.K.; Bagshawe, K.D.; Bagshaweb, D. Antibody Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (ADEPT): Trials and tribulations. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 2017, 118, 2-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2017.09.009] [PMID: 28916498] -25Niculescu, D.I.; Springer, C.J. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 1997, 26, 151-163.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-409X(97)00032-X] [PMID: 10837540] ]. (ii) the enzyme is nonmammalian while their homologues are originated from mammalian species, e.g., β- glucuronidase (β-G) [26Vitols, K.S.; Montejano, Y.; Kuefner, U.; Huennekens, F.M. Selective cytotoxicity of carboxypeptidase-activated methotrexate α-peptides. Pteridines, 1989, 1, 65-70.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/pteridines.1989.1.1.65] ]. (iii) enzyme and their homologues originated from mammalian species e.g., α- Galactosidase (α-g) and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) [27Kuefner, U.; Lohrmann, U.; Montejano, Y.D.; Vitols, K.S.; Huennekens, F.M. Carboxypeptidase-mediated release of methotrexate from methotrexate alpha-peptides. Biochemistry, 1989, 28(5), 2288-2297.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi00431a047] [PMID: 2719954] ]. Antibodies in ADEPT ensure the selectivity of the localized activation of prodrug; the Abs which bind to tumor-specific antigens are a key factor in ADEPT [28Haisma, H.J.; Boven, E.; Muijenvan, M. Jong, de J.; Vygh, van der W.J.F.; Pinedo, H.M. Br. J. Cancer, 1992, 66, 474-478.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1992.298] [PMID: 1520585] ]. Ab-conjugates used in ADEPT must have specificity for tumor cells, with high affinity being the main requirement for ADEPT delivery [29Arpicco, S.; Dosio, F.; Stella, B.; Cattel, L. Anticancer prodrugs: An overview of major strategies and recent developments. Curr. Top. Med. Chem., 2011, 11(18), 2346-2381.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/156802611797183221] [PMID: 21671864] ]. These Ab conjugates should have minimum binding capacity towards normal tissues. To ensure rapid clearance of the conjugate from body fluids with an addition, the covalent binding of the enzyme must not destroy the ability of the Ab to bind with associated antigen in ADEPT delivery [30Hsieh, P.W.; Hung, C.F.; Fang, J.Y. Current prodrug design for drug discovery. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2009, 15(19), 2236-2250.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161209788682523] [PMID: 19601825] ]. There are two approaches which oppose Ab-enzyme conjugate to penetrate the tumors. Firstly, the `leaky' vascular bed and interstitium of tumor as compared to that of normal tissue, which is advantageous for the localization of macromolecules [31Palombo, M.S.; Singh, Y.; Sinko, P.J. Prodrug and conjugate drug delivery strategies for improving HIV/AIDS therapy. J. Drug Deliv. Sci. Technol., 2009, 19(1), 3-14.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1773-2247(09)50001-9] [PMID: 20717488] , 32Han, H.K.; Amidon, G.L. Targeted prodrug design to optimize drug delivery. AAPS PharmSci, 2000, 2(1), E6.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/ps020106] [PMID: 11741222] ] and other one the random distribution which leads to decrease the uptake of macromolecules [33Bagshawe, K.D.; Sharma, S.K.; Begent, R.H. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) for cancer. Expert Opin. Biol. Ther., 2004, 4(11), 1777-1789.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14712598.4.11.1777] [PMID: 15500406] , 34Connors, T.A. The choice of prodrugs for gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer. Gene Ther., 1995, 2(10), 702-709.[PMID: 8750009] ]. This limitation can be overcome by using Ab fragments, e.g., F (ab′) 2, F (ab′) and scFv, which increase rate of transport into the interstitial region of tumor. These fragments have better penetration ability than intact Ab and also show more rapid clearance as demonstrated in animals and in patients [35Connors, T.A.; Knox, R.J. Prodrugs in cancer chemotherapy. Stem Cells, 1995, 13(5), 501-511.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.5530130507] [PMID: 8528099] ].

Table 4
Some characteristics of enzymes used for ADEPT systems.


3.4. Use of Prodrugs in ADEPT

The major problem for tumor therapy is poor vascularisation of tumors cells. To produce more effective treatment towards the delivery and penetration of molecules across the physiological barriers of the tumor are an extremely important parameter in this approach. There are two factors which govern the uptake of a compound into the tumor, one is the extraction coefficient by the tumor and second is the blood flow in the vascular portion in the tumor. Lipophilicity and properties of the physiological barrier play an important role for extraction of Prodrug by the tumor through the blood flow. The factors through which a prodrug development can meet optimum availability through the blood flow are a possibility for leak back of the drug from the tumor and the pharmacokinetic properties of the prodrug [36Schellmann, N.; Deckert, P.M.; Bachran, D.; Fuchs, H.; Bachran, C. Targeted enzyme prodrug therapies. Mini Rev. Med. Chem., 2010, 10(10), 887-904.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138955710792007196] [PMID: 20560876] ]. In designing of prodrug through ADEPT should be less cytotoxic than their corresponding active component (Table 5).

Table 5
Some examples of prodrugs used for ADEPT system.


The prodrug designing through this technique should be chemically stable under targeted physiological conditions and must have good pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic responses as well as the prodrugs substrates must have properties for activation when it attached on enzyme under targeted physiological environment. ADEPT prodrugs are derived from well-known anticancer agents or their analogues as model molecules for the designing of a less cytotoxic prodrug to release a highly toxic drug requires adequate knowledge of their Structure-Activity Relationships (SAR) towards its cytotoxic action. Well, known pharmacokinetic parameters of the drugs give an additional advantage for this delivery. Since a change in one physicochemical property of the prodrug, structure affects a variety of the properties of that prodrug ( e.g., biodistribution, reactivity, and pharmacokinetics) in addition to the enzyme kinetics [37Jung, M. Antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) and related approaches for anticancer therapy. Mini Rev. Med. Chem., 2001, 1(4), 399-407.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557013406747] [PMID: 12369965] ].

3.5. Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT)

Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) is a technique which physically delivers a gene for a foreign enzyme to tumor cells where a systemically administered nontoxic prodrug can be activated when enzymes are expressed. This is also known as suicidal gene therapeutic phenomenon [38Tietze, L.F.; Schmuck, K. Prodrugs for targeted tumor therapies: Recent developments in ADEPT, GDEPT and PMT. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2011, 17(32), 3527-3547.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161211798194459] [PMID: 22074425] ]. GDEPT can also be used to improve the selectivity of currently used medicaments via CYP activation. Prodrug activation with the help of CYP activation system is one of the good examples of GEDPT delivery (Table 6).

Table 6
Some examples of prodrugs employed in GDEPT technique.


Members of the CYP enzyme superfamily convert the anticancer agents, cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide are acted via alkylating agents which cause cell death [39Nishi, Y. Enzyme/abzyme prodrug activation systems: Potential use in clinical oncology. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2003, 9(26), 2113-2130.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612033454063] [PMID: 14529409] ]. Generally, the liver has overexpressed CYP as compared to tumor cells, which leads to action for intrinsic drug resistance. Recently, CPA/MTX-α-peptide system was developed to improve its mechanism. CPA is a zymogen that becomes catalytically active after detachment of its propeptide portion in the presence of trypsin [40Zhang, J.; Kale, V.; Chen, M. Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy. AAPS J., 2015, 17(1), 102-110.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-014-9675-7] [PMID: 25338741] ]. Thus, Activated CPA converts MTX-α-peptide prodrug into active MTX (Methotrexate) that inhibits Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR) and eventually causes cell death [41Dachs, G.U.; Tupper, J.; Tozer, G.M. From bench to bedside for gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer. Anticancer Drugs, 2005, 16(4), 349-359.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001813-200504000-00001] [PMID: 15746571] ]. As trypsin is most abundantly present in the small intestine but it is found absent in tumors thus, the prodrug activation by CPA is limited to the intestine, causing local toxicity and low drug concentration in tumors. To activate the prodrug at tumor site in a trypsin-independent manner, a battery of CPA mutants is developed in which the trypsin cleavage sites cause mutation at the site of mammalian propeptidases recognition [42Aghi, M.; Hochberg, F.; Breakefield, X.O. Prodrug activation enzymes in cancer gene therapy. J. Gene Med., 2000, 2(3), 148-164.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-2254(200005/06)2:3<148::AID-JGM105>3.0.CO;2-Q] [PMID: 10894261] ].

GDEPT technique could be used to treat any solid tumor that is accessible either directly or via local perfusion. The technology could also be beneficial in treatment strategies for other diseases, such as graft versus host disease. Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) is a two-step treatment approach where the gene for a non-endogenous enzyme is directed to target tissues. The expression of enzyme at tumor site are able to activate a simultaneously administered prodrug. It is a new and promising treatment for current cancer chemotherapy (Fig. 5) [43Dachs, G.U.; Hunt, M.A.; Syddall, S.; Singleton, D.C.; Patterson, A.V. Bystander or no bystander for gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy. Molecules, 2009, 14(11), 4517-4545.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules14114517] [PMID: 19924084] ].

Fig. (5)
Flowchart showing various modes of targeting used in cancer or tumor therapy.


The requirement in GDEPT therapy is a non-endogenous enzyme produced by a gene (expression of enzyme at low level) which is responsible for the activation of a prodrug and injection of the prodrug. To achieve success in GDEPT, two factors must be taken into consideration such as, firstly, the targeted gene should only be expressed in the tumor cells, and secondly, overexpression in the tumor cells should be as high as possible (Fig. 6) [44Altaner, C. Prodrug cancer gene therapy. Cancer Lett., 2008, 270(2), 191-201.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2008.04.023] [PMID: 18502571] ].

Fig. (6)
Mechanism of GDEPT technique in treatment of tumors.


3.6. Genetic Prodrug Activation Therapy (GPAT)

Genetic Prodrug Activation Therapy (GPAT) technique is an improved form of Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (GDEPT) technique. This strategy works upon intracellular conversion of a relatively non-toxic prodrug into a toxic drug by a xenobiotic origin enzyme and has been referred to as genetic prodrug activation therapy (GPAT) [45Zhang, J.; Kale, V.; Chen, M. Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy. AAPS J., 2015, 17(1), 102-110.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-014-9675-7] [PMID: 25338741] ]. Genetic Prodrug Activation Therapy (GPAT) is a newer approach that can destroy tumor cells by inserting 'suicide' genes into tumor cells. Transcriptional differences between normal and tumor cells employ to drive the selective expression of a metabolic “suicide gene” that is able to convert a nontoxic prodrug into its toxic metabolite (drug) in this therapy [46Greco, O.; Dachs, G.U. Gene directed enzyme/prodrug therapy of cancer: Historical appraisal and future prospectives. J. Cell. Physiol., 2001, 187(1), 22-36.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4652(2001)9999:9999<::AID-JCP1060>3.0.CO;2-H] [PMID: 11241346] ]. The most common description of GPAT strategy is seen in the Herpes Simplex Virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) enzyme ganciclovir (GCV) prodrug system [1Zawilska, J.B.; Wojcieszak, J.; Olejniczak, A.B. Prodrugs: A challenge for the drug development. Pharmacol. Rep., 2013, 65(1), 1-14.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1734-1140(13)70959-9] [PMID: 23563019] ]. HSVtk may act through phosphorylation of GCV that results in product incorporating into DNA during cell division which ultimately results in the death of tumor cell [47Khatri, A.; Russell, P.J. Targeted, gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapies to tackle diversity and aggression of late stage prostate cancer. Discov. Med., 2007, 7(37), 39-45.[PMID: 17343804] ].

3.7. Virus-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (VDEPT)

Virus-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (VDEPT) is an emerging strategy for the treatment of tumors [48Huber, B.E.; Richards, C.A.; Austin, E.A. Virus-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (VDEPT). Selectively engineering drug sensitivity into tumors. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1994, 716, 104-114.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1994.tb21706.x] [PMID: 8024189] ]. This technique uses viral vectors for the introduction of a transgene that is more specifically referred to as VDEPT technique. In this approach, a viral vector encoded by an enzyme which can convert inactive prodrug into a cytotoxic metabolite that infects the tumor cell. Upon prodrug administration, an enzyme coded by a viral vector in the tumor cell leads to produce cytotoxic metabolite which results in direct tumor cell death (Fig. 7).

A study revealed that when the E. coli NTR (nitroimidazole reductase) gene was introduced into colorectal and pancreatic cancer cell lines by retroviral delivery, it was observed that NTR-expressing clones of both cell lines were more susceptible to cytotoxic effects mediated by the prodrug CB1954 [30Hsieh, P.W.; Hung, C.F.; Fang, J.Y. Current prodrug design for drug discovery. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2009, 15(19), 2236-2250.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161209788682523] [PMID: 19601825] ], which revealed that NTR and CB1954 [5-[aziridin-1-yl]-2, 4-dinitrobenzamide] can be used as an attractive combination for treatment of tumors that employs VDEPT technique. NTR (nitroimidazole reductase) has also acted on tumor cells by a replication-defective adenovirus vector containing an NTR expression. It also suggested the high sensitivity of NTR-expressing cells to CB1954. Additionally, cisplatin-resistant cells with NTR expression were also found to be susceptible to CB1954, suggesting that this system may also be useful for tumor treatment in patients with cisplatin-resistant tumors (Table 7) [49Xu, G.; McLeod, H.L. Strategies for enzyme/prodrug cancer therapy. Clin. Cancer Res., 2001, 7(11), 3314-3324.[PMID: 11705842] ].

Fig. (7)
Mechanism of VDEPT technique in cancer treatment.


Table 7
Viral vectors and Enzymes used for VDEPT system.


4. RESULT

Nowadays, the treatment for tumor is one of the biggest challenges in the medical field as the drugs used for this purpose produce a wide range of side effects due to lack of selectivity, the solution to this problem can be achieved by the development of different strategies of prodrug targeting or site specificity (GDEPT, ADEPT, VDEPT etc.). To enhance aqueous solubility, the prodrug approach has been used as a successful tool. To avoid discarding promising active prototypes or drugs with therapeutic uses, the prodrug approach can make it possible to achieve this goal. The rational selection of pro-moiety and the type of linkage may determine the prodrug selectivity, toxicity, and ideal bioconversion profile towards its site specificity. All the prodrug- targeting techniques are practically advantageous for optimizing the treatment of tumor cells. GDEPT and VDEPT are somewhat advantageous over ADEPT as most of the enzymes need cofactor[s] which are present only inside the cells. Still, the choice of GDEPT, VDEPT and ADEPT for the treatment of tumors should always depend on the clinical scenario.

CONCLUSION

Furthermore, the prodrug approach could be viewed as an alternative in the early phases of drug discovery. This strategy may be useful to enhance pharmacokinetic properties (ADME), as well as poor aqueous solubility, which clears a critical step in pre-clinical phase drug development.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

REFERENCES

[1] Zawilska, J.B.; Wojcieszak, J.; Olejniczak, A.B. Prodrugs: A challenge for the drug development. Pharmacol. Rep., 2013, 65(1), 1-14.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1734-1140(13)70959-9] [PMID: 23563019]
[2] Jana, S.; Mandlekar, S.; Marathe, P. Prodrug design to improve pharmacokinetic and drug delivery properties: Challenges to the discovery scientists. Curr. Med. Chem., 2010, 17(32), 3874-3908.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986710793205426] [PMID: 20858214]
[3] Rautio, J.; Kumpulainen, H.; Heimbach, T.; Oliyai, R.; Oh, D.; Järvinen, T.; Savolainen, J. Prodrugs: Design and clinical applications. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov., 2008, 7(3), 255-270.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrd2468] [PMID: 18219308]
[4] Hsieh, P.W.; Hung, C.F.; Fang, J.Y. Current prodrug design for drug discovery. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2009, 15(19), 2236-2250.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161209788682523] [PMID: 19601825]
[5] Kratz, F.; Müller, I.A.; Ryppa, C.; Warnecke, A. Prodrug strategies in anticancer chemotherapy. ChemMedChem, 2008, 3(1), 20-53.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.200700159] [PMID: 17963208]
[6] Zee-Cheng, R.K.; Cheng, C.C. Delivery of anticancer drugs. Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol., 1989, 11(7-8), 439-529.[PMID: 2689812]
[7] Freeman, A.I.; Mayhew, E. Targeted drug delivery. Cancer, 1986, 58(2)(Suppl.), 573-583.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19860715)58:2+<573::AID-CNCR2820581328>3.0.CO;2-C] [PMID: 3521839]
[8] Zawilska, J.B.; Wojcieszak, J.; Olejniczak, A.B. Prodrugs: A challenge for the drug development. Pharmacol. Rep., 2013, 65(1), 1-14.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1734-1140(13)70959-9] [PMID: 23563019]
[9] Rautio, J.; Kumpulainen, H.; Heimbach, T.; Oliyai, R.; Oh, D.; Järvinen, T.; Savolainen, J. Prodrugs: Design and clinical applications. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov., 2008, 7(3), 255-270.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrd2468] [PMID: 18219308]
[10] Müller, C.E. Prodrug approaches for enhancing the bioavailability of drugs with low solubility. Chem. Biodivers., 2009, 6(11), 2071-2083.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.200900114] [PMID: 19937841]
[11] Hsieh, P.W.; Hung, C.F.; Fang, J.Y. Current prodrug design for drug discovery. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2009, 15(19), 2236-2250.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161209788682523] [PMID: 19601825]
[12] Huttunen, K.M.; Rautio, J. Prodrugs - An efficient way to breach delivery and targeting barriers. Curr. Top. Med. Chem., 2011, 11(18), 2265-2287.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/156802611797183230] [PMID: 21671868]
[13] Mowday, A.M.; Ashoorzadeh, A.; Williams, E.M.; Copp, J.N.; Silva, S.; Bull, M.R.; Abbattista, M.R.; Anderson, R.F.; Flanagan, J.U.; Guise, C.P.; Ackerley, D.F.; Smaill, J.B.; Patterson, A.V. Rational design of an AKR1C3-resistant analog of PR-104 for enzyme-prodrug therapy. Biochem. Pharmacol., 2016, 116(116), 176-187.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2016.07.015] [PMID: 27453434]
[14] Albertella, M.R.; Loadman, P.M.; Jones, P.H.; Phillips, R.M.; Rampling, R.; Burnet, N.; Alcock, C.; Anthoney, A.; Vjaters, E.; Dunk, C.R.; Harris, P.A.; Wong, A.; Lalani, A.S.; Twelves, C.J. Hypoxia-selective targeting by the bioreductive prodrug AQ4N in patients with solid tumors: Results of a phase I study. Clin. Cancer Res., 2008, 14(4), 1096-1104.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4020] [PMID: 18281542]
[15] Patterson, L.H.; McKeown, S.R. AQ4N: A new approach to hypoxia-activated cancer chemotherapy. Br. J. Cancer, 2000, 83(12), 1589-1593.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/bjoc.2000.1564] [PMID: 11104551]
[16] Napier, M.P.; Sharma, S.K.; Springer, C.J.; Bagshawe, K.D.; Green, A.J.; Martin, J.; Stribbling, S.M.; Cushen, N.; O’Malley, D.; Begent, R.H. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: Efficacy and mechanism of action in colorectal carcinoma. Clin. Cancer Res., 2000, 6(3), 765-772.[PMID: 10741695]
[17] Bagshawe, K.D. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) for cancer. Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther., 2006, 6(10), 1421-1431.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14737140.6.10.1421] [PMID: 17069527]
[18] Connors, T.A. The choice of prodrugs for gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer. Gene Ther., 1995, 2(10), 702-709.[PMID: 8750009]
[19] Grove, J.I.; Searle, P.F.; Weedon, S.J.; Green, N.K.; McNeish, I.A.; Kerr, D.J. Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy using CB1954. Anticancer Drug Des., 1999, 14(6), 461-472.[PMID: 10834268]
[20] Minton, N.P.; Mauchline, M.L.; Lemmon, M.J.; Brehm, J.K.; Fox, M.; Michael, N.P.; Giaccia, A.; Brown, J.M. Chemotherapeutic tumour targeting using clostridial spores. FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 1995, 17(3), 357-364.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.1995.tb00219.x] [PMID: 7576773]
[21] Sharma, S.K.; Bagshawe, K.D.; Bagshaweb, D. Antibody Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (ADEPT): Trials and tribulations. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 2017, 118, 2-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2017.09.009] [PMID: 28916498]
[22] Gad, S.C. Drug Discovery Handbook., (3rd ed. ) 3rd ed. 2016, , 770-779.
[23] Silverman, R.B. The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action., (2nd ed. ) 2nd ed. 2016, , 510-512.
[24] Philip, A.K.; Philip, B. Colon targeted drug delivery systems: A review on primary and novel approaches. Oman Med. J., 2010, 25(2), 79-87.[http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2010.24] [PMID: 22125706]
[25] Niculescu, D.I.; Springer, C.J. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., 1997, 26, 151-163.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-409X(97)00032-X] [PMID: 10837540]
[26] Vitols, K.S.; Montejano, Y.; Kuefner, U.; Huennekens, F.M. Selective cytotoxicity of carboxypeptidase-activated methotrexate α-peptides. Pteridines, 1989, 1, 65-70.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/pteridines.1989.1.1.65]
[27] Kuefner, U.; Lohrmann, U.; Montejano, Y.D.; Vitols, K.S.; Huennekens, F.M. Carboxypeptidase-mediated release of methotrexate from methotrexate alpha-peptides. Biochemistry, 1989, 28(5), 2288-2297.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi00431a047] [PMID: 2719954]
[28] Haisma, H.J.; Boven, E.; Muijenvan, M. Jong, de J.; Vygh, van der W.J.F.; Pinedo, H.M. Br. J. Cancer, 1992, 66, 474-478.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1992.298] [PMID: 1520585]
[29] Arpicco, S.; Dosio, F.; Stella, B.; Cattel, L. Anticancer prodrugs: An overview of major strategies and recent developments. Curr. Top. Med. Chem., 2011, 11(18), 2346-2381.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/156802611797183221] [PMID: 21671864]
[30] Hsieh, P.W.; Hung, C.F.; Fang, J.Y. Current prodrug design for drug discovery. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2009, 15(19), 2236-2250.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161209788682523] [PMID: 19601825]
[31] Palombo, M.S.; Singh, Y.; Sinko, P.J. Prodrug and conjugate drug delivery strategies for improving HIV/AIDS therapy. J. Drug Deliv. Sci. Technol., 2009, 19(1), 3-14.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1773-2247(09)50001-9] [PMID: 20717488]
[32] Han, H.K.; Amidon, G.L. Targeted prodrug design to optimize drug delivery. AAPS PharmSci, 2000, 2(1), E6.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/ps020106] [PMID: 11741222]
[33] Bagshawe, K.D.; Sharma, S.K.; Begent, R.H. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) for cancer. Expert Opin. Biol. Ther., 2004, 4(11), 1777-1789.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14712598.4.11.1777] [PMID: 15500406]
[34] Connors, T.A. The choice of prodrugs for gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer. Gene Ther., 1995, 2(10), 702-709.[PMID: 8750009]
[35] Connors, T.A.; Knox, R.J. Prodrugs in cancer chemotherapy. Stem Cells, 1995, 13(5), 501-511.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.5530130507] [PMID: 8528099]
[36] Schellmann, N.; Deckert, P.M.; Bachran, D.; Fuchs, H.; Bachran, C. Targeted enzyme prodrug therapies. Mini Rev. Med. Chem., 2010, 10(10), 887-904.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138955710792007196] [PMID: 20560876]
[37] Jung, M. Antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) and related approaches for anticancer therapy. Mini Rev. Med. Chem., 2001, 1(4), 399-407.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557013406747] [PMID: 12369965]
[38] Tietze, L.F.; Schmuck, K. Prodrugs for targeted tumor therapies: Recent developments in ADEPT, GDEPT and PMT. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2011, 17(32), 3527-3547.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161211798194459] [PMID: 22074425]
[39] Nishi, Y. Enzyme/abzyme prodrug activation systems: Potential use in clinical oncology. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2003, 9(26), 2113-2130.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612033454063] [PMID: 14529409]
[40] Zhang, J.; Kale, V.; Chen, M. Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy. AAPS J., 2015, 17(1), 102-110.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-014-9675-7] [PMID: 25338741]
[41] Dachs, G.U.; Tupper, J.; Tozer, G.M. From bench to bedside for gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer. Anticancer Drugs, 2005, 16(4), 349-359.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001813-200504000-00001] [PMID: 15746571]
[42] Aghi, M.; Hochberg, F.; Breakefield, X.O. Prodrug activation enzymes in cancer gene therapy. J. Gene Med., 2000, 2(3), 148-164.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-2254(200005/06)2:3<148::AID-JGM105>3.0.CO;2-Q] [PMID: 10894261]
[43] Dachs, G.U.; Hunt, M.A.; Syddall, S.; Singleton, D.C.; Patterson, A.V. Bystander or no bystander for gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy. Molecules, 2009, 14(11), 4517-4545.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules14114517] [PMID: 19924084]
[44] Altaner, C. Prodrug cancer gene therapy. Cancer Lett., 2008, 270(2), 191-201.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2008.04.023] [PMID: 18502571]
[45] Zhang, J.; Kale, V.; Chen, M. Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy. AAPS J., 2015, 17(1), 102-110.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-014-9675-7] [PMID: 25338741]
[46] Greco, O.; Dachs, G.U. Gene directed enzyme/prodrug therapy of cancer: Historical appraisal and future prospectives. J. Cell. Physiol., 2001, 187(1), 22-36.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4652(2001)9999:9999<::AID-JCP1060>3.0.CO;2-H] [PMID: 11241346]
[47] Khatri, A.; Russell, P.J. Targeted, gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapies to tackle diversity and aggression of late stage prostate cancer. Discov. Med., 2007, 7(37), 39-45.[PMID: 17343804]
[48] Huber, B.E.; Richards, C.A.; Austin, E.A. Virus-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (VDEPT). Selectively engineering drug sensitivity into tumors. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1994, 716, 104-114.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1994.tb21706.x] [PMID: 8024189]
[49] Xu, G.; McLeod, H.L. Strategies for enzyme/prodrug cancer therapy. Clin. Cancer Res., 2001, 7(11), 3314-3324.[PMID: 11705842]

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Advertisements


Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.com
Copyright © 2018 Bentham Open