The Open Microbiology Journal




ISSN: 1874-2858 ― Volume 14, 2020
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Microbiological and Public Health Status of Cooked Meat and Fish in Ethiopia



Tesfaye L. Bedada1, *, Tatek K. Feto2, Kaleab S. Awoke2, Firehiwot A. Derra1, Samson G. Gebre1, Waktole G. Sima1, Tigist Y. Negassi1, Yosef Beyene1
1 National Public Health Microbiology Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2 Nutrition Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Abstract

Background:

Due to poor sanitation practices and handling of food, weak regulatory systems, lack of resources and education for food-handlers, food-borne infections happen frequently and pose a serious threat to human health in developing countries like Ethiopia.

Materials and Methods:

A total of 265 samples of meat and fish with berbere spice added or not were collected from Ethiopia between Jan. 2013 to Dec. 2017. The food samples were analysed using colony count for Aerobic Colony Count (ACC) and S. aureus, spread method for yeasts and moulds enumeration, Nordic Committee on Food Analysis Method No. 44 for coliforms and ES ISO 6579:2002 for Salmonella and Shigella species. The data was analysed using SPSS 20.0.

Results:

The unsatisfactory levels for aerobic colony count, total and thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, moulds and yeasts counts for the total samples were 12.1% (N=32), 11.7% (N=31), 1.9% (N=5), 3.4% (N=9), 1.2% (N=3) and 1.9% (N=5), respectively. Among the categories of three ready-to-eat foods examined, beef and mutton meats, fish and poultry, had the highest and lowest microbial contamination. Microbial quality of packaged samples with berbere spice added was reasonable compared with unpackaged samples with no berbere spice added.

Conclusion:

About 21% of the samples had unsatisfactory microbial quality because of aerobic colony count, coliforms or fungi. However, Salmonella, Shigella spp. and S. aureus were not detected in the samples tested. Processing under hygienic conditions, adding berbere spice to foods and packaging enhances the quality of ready to eat articles.

Keywords: Berbere spice, Cooked meats, Coliforms, Fish, Fungi, E. coli.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 123
Last Page: 129
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-14-123
DOI: 10.2174/1874285802014010123

Article History:

Received Date: 31/01/2020
Revision Received Date: 20/04/2020
Acceptance Date: 22/04/2020
Electronic publication date: 16/06/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Bedada et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the National Public Health Microbiology Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Tel: 251912139197; Fax: 251 112758634; E-mail: tesfayelegesse21@gmail.com





1. INTRODUCTION

Food safety is a scientific discipline including handling, preparation, and storage of food. It is one of the most vital parts of food service processes but usually gets the least amount of attention and visibility [1Manask AM. The complete guide to food service in Cultural Institutions 2002; 5-35.]. However, the need for preparation and storage of foods throughout to ensure food safety has caused a lot of public concern [2Mauer WA, Kaneene JB, DeArman VT, et al. Ethnic-food safety concerns: An online survey of food safety professionals. J Environ Health 2006; 68(10): 32-8.
[PMID: 16779999]
]. Cooked food is a ready-to-eat commodity that is consumed without further processing [3USFDA [United States Food and Drug Administration]. Food Code 2009, FDA 2009., 4Codex Alimentarius Commision. Risk assesment of Listeria monocytogenes. Ready to eat foods: guidelines FAO/WHO Microbiological Risk Assesment Series 2004. No.4]. This food is provided by the catering business to the individuals and covers all parts of society such as hospitals, childcare, restaurants, bars, take-away and fast-food outlets, schools and nursing homes. This business has expanded to the highest degree due to lifestyle change, travelling and boosted purchasing power [5Garayoa R, Vitas AI, Díez-Leturia M, García-Jalón I. Food safety and the contract catering companies: Food handlers, facilities and HACCP evaluation. Food Control 2011; 22: 2006-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.05.021]
].

Illnesses due to microbes make microbial quality to be the most important aspect of food safety. Therefore, food safety predominantly focuses on the control of microbial contamination of foods [6Hanning I, O’Bryan C, Crandall P, Ricke S. Food Safety and Food Security. Nat. EducKnowl 2012; 3: 9.]. The contamination of food by the microbes may pose a serious threat to human health [7Riener J, Noci F, Cronin DA, Morgan DJ, Lyng JG. A comparison of selected quality characteristics of foods prepared from thermosonicated and conventionally heated milks. Food Chem 2010; 119(3): 1108-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.08.025]
].

More than half of the outbreaks attributable to foodborne diseases could be traced to poultry, beef and mutton meat products due to lack of good practices at restaurants, homes, institutions and in almost all instances [8Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of foodborne illnesses--selected sites, United States, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001; 50(13): 241-6.
[PMID: 11310569]
]. Cooked meat and fish products can be classified as high- risk food and intermediate -risk foods, respectively [9Uyttendaele M, Busschaert P, Valero A, et al. Prevalence and challenge tests of Listeria monocytogenes in Belgian produced and retailed mayonnaise-based deli-salads, cooked meat products and smoked fish between 2005 and 2007. Int J Food Microbiol 2009; 133(1-2): 94-104.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.05.002] [PMID: 19515447]
]. Due to poor sanitation practices and handling of food, insufficient food safety laws, weak regulatory systems, lack of resources and education for food-handlers, food-borne infections frequently occur in underdeveloped countries like Ethiopia [10World Health Organization. Regional office for africa developing and maintaining food safety control systems for africa current status and prospects for change 2004; Bangkok, Thailand. 2004; pp. Second FAO/WHO Global Forum of Food Safety Regulators; 12-4.].

Food borne diseases are either infectious or toxic in nature and accountable for high levels of morbidity and mortality in population especially immunocompromised individuals, such as children and elderly [11World Health Organization. Food safety and foodborne illness [WWW Document] Factsheets 2019.http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs237/en/]. The consumption of food contaminated by bacteria, fungi, toxins, viruses, and parasites may cause diseases [12Vaclavik VA, Christian EW. Essentials of Food Science 3rd ed. 2008; 381-424.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-69940-0_16]
]. More than 200 diseases spread through contaminated food, which infects millions of people who get sick and die every year. Diarrhea transmitted by consuming unsafe food alone kills about 1.5 million children annually [13WHO. Food Safety: What you should know 2015.http://www.searo.who.int/entity/world_health_day/2015/whd-whatyou-should-know/en/ b]. Food borne illnesses can be avoided by controlling microbes at one or more phases of food production [14ICMSF. Microorganisms in foods 8 Use of data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance 2011.], a serious cause of individual distress, social disturbance, death and economic burden [15Scharff RL. Economic burden from health losses due to foodborne illness in the United States. J Food Prot 2012; 75(1): 123-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-058] [PMID: 22221364]
].

There is no sufficient food safety information with regard to ready-to-eat food in the world [16Sarah K. McLean, Louise A, Dunn E, Palombo A. A pilot study of the microbiological quality of culturally diverse, ready-to-eat Foods from selected retail establishments in melbourne, Australia. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2010; 7: 5.] including Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the microbiological quality and safety of cooked meats and fish in some regions of Ethiopia using moulds, yeasts, Aerobic Colony Count (ACC), total and thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella and Shigella spp.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Samples

A retrospective study was conducted on 265 food samples (209 packaged and 56 unpackaged) of sliced meat of cooked poultry (N=101), beef and mutton meat (N=96) with a spice, berbere (spice mix mainly red hot chilli) [17Bedada TL, Derra FA, Gebre SG, et al. Microbial evaluation of spices in Ethiopia. Open Microbiol J 2018; 12: 422-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874285801812010422]
] added or not, and cooked fish (N=68) which were collected between January 2013 to December 2017.

The samples were collected from Addis Ababa (N=250), Oromia (N= 13), Gambela (N= 1), and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) (N=1) regional states of Ethiopia. The meats and fish samples were obtained from different premises, catering (N=240) and restaurants (N=25). The samples were transported on ice to the National Public Health Microbiology Research Laboratory of Ethiopian Public Health Institute. The samples were analyzed for mould, yeasts, ACC, total and thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus within 24 hours of collection.

2.2. Laboratory Methods

To process the sample, 25g of ready to eat food sample was mixed with 225 ml of buffered peptone water. Further decimal serial dilutions were performed up to 105 as required in the same peptone water for bacteriological and mycological sample analyses.

2.2.1. Aerobic Colony Count (ACC)

The food samples were analyzed using plate count agar by incubating for 48 ± 3 hours at 30°C. The bacteria were enumerated as Colony-Forming Units per gram (CFU/g) [18Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste water: Method 9215 B, Pour Plate Method 2012.].

2.2.2. Yeasts and Moulds Enumeration

Yeast and mould were counted according to ISO 7954 using Rose Bengal chloramphenicol agar spread method and incubated for 5-7 days at 25°C [19Ethiopia Standard Agencies. ES ISO ES ISO 21527-1:2014 Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and moulds - part 1: Colony count technique in products with water activity greater than 095 2014.].

2.2.3. Coliform Test

Coliform test was conducted using the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis, NMKL Method No. 44. About 5 ml of tryptone soya agar was poured to 1 ml of 1:10 to 1:105 diluted samples and pre-incubated for 1-2 hours at 20 - 25°C. Melted agar of violet red bile (10-15 ml) was added on top of the agar and typical colonies were enumerated after incubation at 37°C and 44.5°C for 24 hours. Five colonies from presumptive coliforms were confirmed by checking for the production of gas in brilliant green bile salt lactose broth and thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli), Escherichia coli (EC) broth was inoculated and incubated at 44.5 °C. The presence of gas indicated the occurrence of thermotolerant coliforms. E. coli was confirmed by indole test. Test results were reported by calculating the population density from the colonies enumerated and the degree of dilutions [20Nordic Committee on Food Analysis. Coliform bacteria Determination in foods and feeds 6th ed NMKL Method 2004.].

2.2.4. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) Enumeration

Enumeration of S. aureus was taken place according to ES ISO 688-1:2002 using pour plate method on Baird-Parker agar or manitol salt agar and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. The test was confirmed by coagulase test [21Ethiopian Standard Agency. ES ISO 6888-1:2018 Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species) - part 1: technique using Baird-Parker agar medium 2018.].

2.2.5. Identification of Salmonella and Shigella species

Salmonella spp. was tested by ES ISO 6579: 2002 using buffered peptone water pre-enrichment medium followed by selenite cystine and Rappaport vascildas broths selective enrichments and xylose lysine deoxycholate isolation medium incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. Salmonella presumptive colony was subcultured on plates and biochemically and serologically examined for confirmation [22Ethiopia Standard Agency ES ISO 6579:2017 Microbiology General Guidance on methods for the detections of Salmonella 2017.]. For the detection of Shigella spp., the same culture media were used.

2.2.6. Data Analysis

The data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc. Version 20, Chicago, Illinois). Probability value was set at p-value < 0.05. To test out data normality, Shapiro-Wilk test was used. The differences in microbes values by sample type, regions, analysis years, packaging status, catering type, spice added (berbere) were found using non parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The Spearman Rank Correlation was to test the associations between various organisms.

3. RESULTS

A total of 265 cooked poultry meat, beef and mutton meats and fish samples were tested for bacterial and fungal contaminations. Cooked food samples, with ACC, total coliform and thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli and moulds and yeasts counts in different ranges, have been indicated in Table 1. None of the cooked poultry meat, beef and mutton meats and fish samples examined were in the category of unacceptable or potentially hazardous levels of microbial enumerations. All meats and fish samples were examined for full range of microbes, except S. aureus, which was only examined for 64 samples (27 poultry, 30 meats and 7 fish). S. aureus, Shigella and Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the tested cooked food samples.

Packaged cooked meats and fish samples had ACC in the ranges of <105, 105 - <106 and > 106 CFU/g were determined to be 75.1% (N=157), 14.4% (N=30) and 10.5% (N=22), respectively. Total and thermotolerant coliforms ranges, <102, 102 - <104 and >104 CFU/g for the samples were assessed to be 70.8% (N=148), 16.7% (N=35) and 12.4% (N=26); 92.8% (N=194), 12.4% (N=26% 0 and 1.4% (N=3) respectively. E. coli ranges, <20, 20 - <102 and >100CFU/g for the samples were reported to be 77.4% (N=2050, 1.4% (N=3) and 0.5% (N=1). Moulds and yeasts counted greater than 104 CFU/g were noticed each in 1% (N=2) cooked food samples.

Unpackaged cooked meats and fish samples had ACC in the ranges of <105, 105 - <106 and >106 CFU/g were found to be 76.8% (N=43), 5.4% (N=3) and 17.9% (N=10) respectively. Total and thermotolerant coliforms ranges, <102, 102 - <104 and >104 CFU/g for the samples were observed to be 73.2% (N=41), 17.9% (N=10) and 8.9% (N=5); 83.9% (N=47), 12.5% (N=7%) and 3.6% (N=2) respectively. E. coli ranges, <20, 20 - <102 and >100CFU/g for the samples were determined to be 83.9% (N=47), 1.8% (N=1) and 14.3% (N=8). Moulds and yeasts greater than 104 CFU/g were counted in 1.8% (N=1) and 5.4% (N=3) cooked food samples respectively.

Cooked meats and fish samples with berbere spice added had ACC in the ranges of <105, 105 - <106 and >106 CFU/g appeared to be 93.5% (N=29), 3.2% (N=1) and 3.2% (N=1) respectively. Total and thermotolerant coliforms ranges, <102, 102 - <104 and > 104 CFU/g for the samples were investigated to be 90.3% (N=28), 9.7% (N=3) and 0%; 100% (N=31), 0% and 0%, respectively. E. coli ranges, <20, 20 - <102 an >100 CFU/g for the samples were recorded to be 100% (N=31), 0% and 0% respectively. Moulds and yeasts counts greater than 104 CFU/g were noticed in 0% and 3.2% (N=1) of the cooked food samples, respectively.

Cooked poultry meats, beef and mutton meats and fish samples with berbere spice not added had ACC in the ranges of <105, 105 - <106 and >106 CFU/g were evaluated to be 73.1% (N=171), 13.7% (N=32) and 13.2% (N=31) respectively. Total and thermotolerant coliforms ranges, <102, 102 - <104 and >104 CFU/g for the samples were tested to be 68.8% (N=161), 17.9% (N=42) and 13.2% (N=31); 89.7% (N=210), 8.1% (N=19) and 14.7% (N=5) respectively. E. coli ranges, <20, 20 - <102 and >100 CFU/g for the samples were determined to be 94.4% (N=221), 1.7% (N=4) and 3.8% (N=9). Moulds and yeasts counts greater than 104 CFU/g were observed in 3 (1.3%) and 1.7% (N=4) cooked food samples respectively.

ACC >106 CFU/g, total coliform and thermotolerant coliforms >104 CFU/g, E. coli>100 CFU/g, and moulds and yeasts counts greater than104 CFU/g were observed in 57 (23.8%), 28 (11.7%), 2 (0.9%), 5 (2.1%), 6 (2.5%) and 12 (5%) cooked meats and fish samples, respectively for catering premises; whereas ACC >106 CFU/g, total coliform and thermotolerant coliforms >104 CFU/g, E. coli>100 CFU/g, and moulds and yeasts counts greater than104 CFU/g were observed in 8 (32%), 3 (12%), 3 (12%), 4 (16%), 3 (12%) and 2 (8%) cooked poultry meats and fish samples, respectively for retail premises (restaurants).

Rho values of yeast, ACC and E. coli to total coliforms were 0.335, 0.552 and 0.331; mould and E. coli to thermotolerant coliforms were 0.388 and 0.632; ACC and yeast to E. coli were 0.277 and 0.169 respectively, and ACC to yeast was 0.251 (Table 2). P-values for the indicators using Kruskal-Wallis test for the cooked samples by sample type, regions, premises, and berbere spice added vs not added, date and packed vs non-packaged have been given in Table 3.

Cooked poultry meats of 101 samples, with ACC in the ranges of <105, 105 - < 106 and >106 CFU/g were determined to be 87.1% (N=88), 6.9% (N=7) and 5.9% (N=6) respectively. Total and thermotolerant coliforms ranges, <102, 102 - <104 and >104 CFU/g for the samples were found to be 83.2% (N=84), 12.9% (N=13) and 4% (N=4); 95% (N=96), 4% (N=4%) and 1% (N=1) respectively. E. coli ranges, <20, 20 - <102 and >100CFU/g for the samples were recorded to be 98% (N=98), 1% (N=1) and 2% (N=2). Moulds and yeasts counts greater than 104 CFU/g were observed in 2% (N=2) and 1% (N=1) cooked food samples respectively.

Table 1
Microbial counts in cooked meats and fish samples in different regions of Ethiopia from January 2013 to December 2017.


Table 2
Rho values of ACC, fungi, coliforms and E. coli in meats and fish samples between January 2013 to December 2017.


Table 3
P values for, fungi, ACC, coliforms and E. coli in meats and fish samples in Ethiopia by sample type, regions, catering, Pepper added vs not added, date and packed vs non-packaged between January 2013 to December 2017.


Cooked sliced beef and mutton meats samples, with ACC in the ranges of <105, 105 - <106 and >106 CFU/g were found to be 63.5% (N=61), 167% (N=16) and 19.8% (N=19) respectively. Total and thermotolerant coliforms ranges, <102, 102 - <104 and >104 CFU/g for the samples were found to be 66.7% (N=64), 16.7% (N=16) and 16.7% (N=16); 89.6% (N=86), 8.4% (N=8%) and 2.1% (N=2) respectively. E. coli ranges, <20, 20 - <102 and >100CFU/g for the samples were determined to be 91.7% (N=88), 2.1% (N=2) and 6.3% (N=6). Moulds and yeasts greater than 104 CFU/g were counted in 1% (N=1) and 3.1% (N=3) cooked food samples, respectively.

Cooked fish samples, with ACC in the ranges of <105, 105 - <106 and >106 CFU/g were tested to be 75% (N=51), 14.7% (N=10) and 10.3% (N=7) respectively. Total and thermotolerant coliforms ranges, <102, 102 - <104 and >104 CFU/g for the samples were found to be 60.3% (N=41), 23.5% (N=16) and 16.2% (N=11); 87.8% (N=86), 10.3% (N=8%) and 2.9% (N=2) respectively. E. coli ranges, <20, 20 - <102 and >100 CFU/g for the samples were determined to be 97.1% (N=88), 1.5% (N=1) and 1.5% (N=1). Moulds and yeasts counts greater than 104 CFU/g were noticed in 0% and 1.5% (N=1) cooked food samples, respectively.

Poultry meats with berbere spice added had no ACC >106 CFU/g, total and thermotolerant coliforms >104 CFU/g and E. coli>100 CFU/g in any of the samples, except moulds and yeasts counts greater than 104 CFU/g in 2 (11.1%) and 1 (5.6%) samples, respectively. For the beef and mutton meats samples with berbere spice added, ACC >106 CFU/g and moulds greater than 104 CFU/g were observed each in 1 (8.3%) sample; but no total thermotolerant coliforms >104 CFU/g, E. coli>100CFU/g and yeasts counts greater than 104 CFU/g in any of the samples.

Poultry samples with no spice added, with ACC >106 CFU/g, total and thermotolerant coliforms >104 CFU/g, E. coli>100 CFU/g, moulds and yeasts counts greater than 104 CFU/g were enumerated in 6 (7.2%), 1 (1.2%), 2 (2.4%), 2 (2.4. %) and 1 (1.2%) samples, respectively. For the beef and mutton meats samples with berbere spice not added, these microbial ranges were observed in 18 (21.4%), 16 (19%), 2 (2.4%), 0, 1 (1.2%) and 2 (2.4%) samples, respectively.

4. DISCUSSION

A microbiological investigation of ready-to-eat meats and fish was carried out to signify the quality and safety of the products. The finding of the bacteriological examinations of the samples was compared with international guidelines of Public Health Laboratory Service [23Gilbert RJ, de Louvois J, Donovan T, et al. Guidelines for the microbiological quality of some ready-to-eat foods sampled at the point of sale. Commun Dis Public Health 2000; 3(3): 163-7.
[PMID: 11014026]
]. According to this guideline, the limits for aerobic colony count incubated for 48 hours at 30°C for satisfactory, acceptable and unsatisfactory categories which are <105, 105 - <106 and >106 CFU/g, respectively. In the present study, ACC for cooked ready-to-eat meats and fish were found to fall in the satisfactory, acceptable and unsatisfactory categories in 75.5% (N=200), 12.4% (N=33) and 12.1% (N=32) of the overall samples respectively. The unsatisfactory level of ACC can indicate food quality issues or poor temperature control [24Dagadkhair AC, Pakhare KN, Andhale RR, Syed HM. Study of physicochemical and microbial quality of spiced fish sauce made from catla catla fish during storage. Intl. J. Food. Ferment Technol 2016; 6(2): 233-9.].

The satisfactory, acceptable and unsatisfactory ranges for total and thermotolerant coliforms, <102,102 - <104 and >104 CFU/g for the total samples were 71.3% (N=189), 17% (N=45) and 11.7% (N=31); 90.9% (N=241), 19% (N=7.2%) and 1.9% (N=5) respectively. The presence of coliforms in high numbers designates contamination and low microbial quality. This is may be due to contaminated raw material, cross-contamination during preparation or poor storage condition [25Ashour EEZ, El-Fattah MA. Microbiological hazards during preparation of some ready to eat meals and their control measures. World J Dairy & Food Sci 2013; 8(2): 131-9.] poor quality of water for preparation, improper washing of utensils and post-process contamination caused by food handlers [26Ana KC, Angela M, Soares C, et al. Medeiros de A, Montenegro,S. Assessment of personal hygiene and practices of food handlers in municipal public schools of Natal. Bra Fd Cont 2008; 20: 807-10., 27Suneetha C, Manjula K, Depur B. Quality Assessment of street foods in Tirumala. As. JExperBioSci 2011; 2: 207-11.].

E. coli satisfactory, acceptable and unsatisfactory ranges, <20, 20 - <102 and >100CFU/g for the overall samples were 96.2% (N=252), 1.5% (N=4) and 3.4% (N=9) respectively. Escherichia coli is a common indicator and its detection in food generally indicates contamination of direct and indirect fecal matters [28Clarence SY, Obinna CN, Shalom NC. Assessment of bacteriological quality of ready to eat food (Meat pie) in Benin City metropolis, Nigeria. Afr J Microbiol Res 2009; 3(6): 390-5.] and the possibility enteric pathogens contamination [29Carrasco E. Andrés, Morales-Rueda A, García-Gimeno RM. Cross-contamination and recontamination by Salmonella in foods. A review. Food Res Int 2012; 45: 545-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.11.004]
]. This organism is not detected in cooked meat products from Tehran [30Soriano JM, Rico H, Moltó JC, Mañes J. Microbial evaluation of Spanish potato omelette and cooked meat samples in University restaurants. J Food Prot 2000; 63(9): 1273-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-63.9.1273] [PMID: 10983805]
], Indies [31Syne SM, Ramsubhag A, Adesiyun AA. Microbiological hazard analysis of ready-to-eat meats processed at a food plant in Trinidad, West Indies. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2013; 3: 20450.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/iee.v3i0.20450] [PMID: 23878681]
] and Zimbabwe [32Kwiri R, Winini C, Tongonya J, et al. Microbiological safety of cooked vended foods in an urban informal market: A case study of Mbare Msika, Harare, Zimbabwe. JNHFS 2014; 3(3): 216-21.].

The unsatisfactory microbial quality of cooked sliced beef and mutton meats samples in the current study as ACC (19.8%) was lower than the unsatisfactory microbial quality of cooked sliced meat samples tested in the UK [33Elson R, Burgess F, Little CL, Mitchell RT. Microbiological examination of ready-to-eat cold sliced meats and pâté from catering and retail premises in the UK. J Appl Microbiol 2004; 96(3): 499-509.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02203.x] [PMID: 14962130]
] (26%). ACC, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms and E. coli have been found within acceptable levels in cooked beef, but E. coli in100% chicken samples was found in Zimbabwe [32Kwiri R, Winini C, Tongonya J, et al. Microbiological safety of cooked vended foods in an urban informal market: A case study of Mbare Msika, Harare, Zimbabwe. JNHFS 2014; 3(3): 216-21.]. In the present study, the presence of these indicators in 12.1%, 11.7%, 1.9% and 3.4% respectively in the total samples indicates poor handling and hygienic practices and possible danger [34Oranusi U, Braide W. A study of microbial safety of ready-to-eat foods vended on highways: Onitsha-Owerri,south east Nigeria. IRJM 2012; 3(2): 066-71.].

The satisfactory, acceptable and unsatisfactory categories for S. aureus are <20, 20 - <100, 100 - <104 and >104 CFU/g. However, no detection of the pathogens in the examined samples in this study is suggestive of low human contact [35FSANZ. Food Standards Australia New Zealand 2001.www.foodstandards.gov.au]. The absence of S. aureus in the tested cooked poultry meats, beef and mutton meats and fish samples was similar to the studies done on meats and fish in Nigeria [36Adeyeye SAO, Oyewole OB, Obadina AO, Omemu AM, Abayomi SO. Microbial Quality and chemical safety of modern convective smoked Guinean Barracuda fish From Lagos State, Nigeria. Aquacult Int 2015; 5(33): 1-10.] and New Zealand [37Huang R, Dawson CO, Hussain MA. Microbiological quality of selected meat products from the Canterbury Region of New Zealand. Internet Journal of Food Safety 2014; 16: 12-6.]. However, this organism is detected in researches conducted on meat products in Nigeria [38Jerry O, Emmanue U, Chika E, et al. Microbial contamination of ready-to-eat fried chicken meat sold in two selected motor park points in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Int J Pure App Biosci 2015; 3(4): 271-5.], Tehran [39Tavakoli HR, Riazipour M. Microbial quality of cooked meat foods in Tehran Universities Restaurants. Pak J Med Sci 2008; 24(4): 595-9.] and Indies [31Syne SM, Ramsubhag A, Adesiyun AA. Microbiological hazard analysis of ready-to-eat meats processed at a food plant in Trinidad, West Indies. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2013; 3: 20450.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/iee.v3i0.20450] [PMID: 23878681]
].

In the current study, meats and fish contained moulds and yeasts counts above Brazilian guideline acceptable limits above104 CFU/g in1.2% and 1.9% of the samples, respectively [40ComissãoNacional de Normas e Padrões. Compêndio de Resoluçõesda CNNPA 1995.]. In contrast to these unsatisfactory levels of moulds and yeasts counts in the total cooked food samples in this investigation, in New Zealand [37Huang R, Dawson CO, Hussain MA. Microbiological quality of selected meat products from the Canterbury Region of New Zealand. Internet Journal of Food Safety 2014; 16: 12-6.] and Ethiopia, all moulds and yeasts have been found within the acceptable level in cooked meats [41Abebe T, ketema T, Bacha K. Microbiological safety and quality of homemade foods among Jimma university community primary school students, and growth potential of isolated pathogens on some traditional sauces, Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. FSQM 2017; 64: 12-22.]. These fungi reach the food articles from contaminated equipment, raw materials, air or by-cross contamination with man [42Sackey BA, Mensah P, Collison E, Sakyi-Dawson E. Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella and Escherichia coli in live and dressed poultry from metropolitan accra. Int J Food Microbiol 2001; 71(1): 21-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00595-5] [PMID: 11764888]
] and may cause infections or allergic reactions [43Stagnitta PV, Micalizzi B, de Guzmán AM. Prevalence of some bacteria yeasts and molds in meat foods in San Luis, Argentina. Cent Eur J Public Health 2006; 14(3): 141-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21101/cejph.a3378] [PMID: 17152228]
]. The existence of fungi in the samples could be due to poor packaging, storage, and poor perseveration of the food [38Jerry O, Emmanue U, Chika E, et al. Microbial contamination of ready-to-eat fried chicken meat sold in two selected motor park points in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Int J Pure App Biosci 2015; 3(4): 271-5.]. These microbes might affect the taste and quality of various foods and cause spoilage. Moulds can be suggestive of aging and they are responsible for the production of toxins that may affect human health [44Zealand FSAN. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) Agents of Foodborne Illness 2nd ed. 2009.http://www.foodstandards. gov.au/publications/Pages/agentsoffoodborneill5155.a].

The absence of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in RTE meats and fish in this study signifies adequate cooking or preventing cross contamination [44Zealand FSAN. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) Agents of Foodborne Illness 2nd ed. 2009.http://www.foodstandards. gov.au/publications/Pages/agentsoffoodborneill5155.a]. The non-detection of these pathogenic microorganisms in any of 25g cooked food samples tested was in line with the study done on cooked meat by Soriano 2000 [30Soriano JM, Rico H, Moltó JC, Mañes J. Microbial evaluation of Spanish potato omelette and cooked meat samples in University restaurants. J Food Prot 2000; 63(9): 1273-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-63.9.1273] [PMID: 10983805]
], but in studies on cooked chicken, fish and beef and mutton meats products in Nigeria [37Huang R, Dawson CO, Hussain MA. Microbiological quality of selected meat products from the Canterbury Region of New Zealand. Internet Journal of Food Safety 2014; 16: 12-6.] and Srilanka [45Gunasena W. Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat meat based food available in temporary food outlets in gall face green, Colombo, Sri lanka. Int J Agric For Life Sci 2016; 4: 38-44.]. The absence of unacceptable or potentially hazardous levels of microbial enumerations in the cooked poultry meats, beef and mutton meats and fish sample categories was in line with the findings in Slovakia [46Lopašovský L, Terentjeva M, Kunová S, Zeleňáková L, Kačániová M. Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods produced in Slovakia. J Microbiol Biotechnol Food Sci 2016; 5: 31-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.15414/jmbfs.2016.5.special1.31-35]
].

The unsatisfactory levels for ACC, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, moulds and yeasts in unpackaged cooked poultry meats, beef and mutton meats and fish samples were 1.7 times, 2.6 times, 28.6 times, 1.3 times, and 5.4 times more than the unsatisfactory levels for packaged food samples. This might be as a result of environmental contamination or poor handling of unpackaged samples. There was a significant difference in thermotolerant coliforms (P value=0.006) and E. coli (P value=0.001) levels for packaged and unpackaged food samples.

The unsatisfactory levels for ACC, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli and moulds and yeasts in cooked fish, beef and mutton meats and poultry meats with berbere spice not added were 4.4 times, 13.2 times, 14.7 times, 3.8 times and 1.3 times more than the unsatisfactory levels for samples with berbere spice added respectively. This may indicate the effectiveness of antimicrobial function of berbere spice. Statistically, there was a significant difference in yeast (P value=0.026), ACC (P-value=0.001) and total coliforms (P value=0.003) levels for samples with berbere spice added and not added.

The unsatisfactory levels for ACC, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli and moulds in cooked unpackaged poultry meats, beef and mutton meats and fish with berbere spice not added were 19.2 times, 10.6 times, 4.3 times, 17 times and 2.1 times more than the unsatisfactory levels for packaged samples with berbere spice added respectively.

The unsatisfactory microbial quality of cooked poultry meats, beef and mutton meats and fish collected from retail premises (restaurants) for ACC, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, moulds and yeasts were 1.3 times, 1.0 times, 13.3 times, 7.6 times, 4.8 times and 1.6 times more than the unsatisfactory levels for the samples collected from catering premises, respectively. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the microbial quality of cooked poultry meats, beef and mutton meats and fish samples from restaurants compared with those from catering premises except for E. coli (P value= 0.009).

The non-parametric Spearman Correlation test showed statistically significant positive correlations between yeast and hygienic bacterial indicators (ACC and total coliforms) and between mould and thermotolerant coliforms. The finding of the current study generally revealed that among the categories of three ready to eat foods examined, beef and mutton meats, fish and poultry, respectively, had the highest and lowest microbial contamination. The Kruskal Wallis test showed that sample types (cooked fish, beef and mutton meats and poultry meats) differ significantly from each other for the contamination by ACC (p value= 0.034) and total coliforms (p value= 0.004). All the bacterial indicators and yeasts differed statistically by regions; yeasts and total coliforms differed by years. (P values < 0.05).

Out of 265 cooked fish, beef and mutton meats and poultry meats, 208 (78.5%) samples had satisfactory or acceptable microbiological quality, but the rest of 57 (21.5%) samples contained one or more bacterial indicators or fungi with unsatisfactory counts.

CONCLUSION

About 21% of the poultry, beef and mutton and fish samples had unsatisfactory microbial quality because of bacterial indicators or fungi based on international guidelines. However, Salmonella, Shigella spp. and S. aureus were not detected in the samples tested. To avoid public health risks, meats and fish should be processed under hygienic conditions and adding berbere spice to food and packaging enhances the quality of ready to eat articles. Moreover, regular assessment of the products using quality and safety parameters is important.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ACC  = Aerobic Colony Count
CFU/g  = colony-forming units per gram
E. coli  = Escherichia coli
NMKL  = Nordic Committee on Food Analysis
SNNPR  = Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
S. aureus  = Staphylococcus aureus

AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTIONS

Tesfaye Legesse: the concept, design, analysis, interpretation of data and writing.

Firehiwot Abera- analysis, revision and approval of the final version

Samson Girma- design, revision and approval of the final version

Waktole Gobena- drafting, revision and approval of the final version

Tigist Yohannis- revision and approval of the final version

Tatek Kasim- revision and approval of the final version

Kaleab Sebsibe- revision and approval of the final version

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

Not applicable.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No animals/humans were used for studies that are the basis of this research.

AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIAL

The authors confirm that the data supporting the findings of this research are available within the article.

FUNDING

None.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author declares no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thank environmental health officers of Addis Ababa city administration, Oromia, Gambela and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) regional states of Ethiopia who collected and delivered the samples to the laboratory.

REFERENCES

[1] Manask AM. The complete guide to food service in Cultural Institutions 2002; 5-35.
[2] Mauer WA, Kaneene JB, DeArman VT, et al. Ethnic-food safety concerns: An online survey of food safety professionals. J Environ Health 2006; 68(10): 32-8.
[PMID: 16779999]
[3] USFDA [United States Food and Drug Administration]. Food Code 2009, FDA 2009.
[4] Codex Alimentarius Commision. Risk assesment of Listeria monocytogenes. Ready to eat foods: guidelines FAO/WHO Microbiological Risk Assesment Series 2004. No.4
[5] Garayoa R, Vitas AI, Díez-Leturia M, García-Jalón I. Food safety and the contract catering companies: Food handlers, facilities and HACCP evaluation. Food Control 2011; 22: 2006-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.05.021]
[6] Hanning I, O’Bryan C, Crandall P, Ricke S. Food Safety and Food Security. Nat. EducKnowl 2012; 3: 9.
[7] Riener J, Noci F, Cronin DA, Morgan DJ, Lyng JG. A comparison of selected quality characteristics of foods prepared from thermosonicated and conventionally heated milks. Food Chem 2010; 119(3): 1108-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.08.025]
[8] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of foodborne illnesses--selected sites, United States, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001; 50(13): 241-6.
[PMID: 11310569]
[9] Uyttendaele M, Busschaert P, Valero A, et al. Prevalence and challenge tests of Listeria monocytogenes in Belgian produced and retailed mayonnaise-based deli-salads, cooked meat products and smoked fish between 2005 and 2007. Int J Food Microbiol 2009; 133(1-2): 94-104.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.05.002] [PMID: 19515447]
[10] World Health Organization. Regional office for africa developing and maintaining food safety control systems for africa current status and prospects for change 2004; Bangkok, Thailand. 2004; pp. Second FAO/WHO Global Forum of Food Safety Regulators; 12-4.
[11] World Health Organization. Food safety and foodborne illness [WWW Document] Factsheets 2019.http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs237/en/
[12] Vaclavik VA, Christian EW. Essentials of Food Science 3rd ed. 2008; 381-424.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-69940-0_16]
[13] WHO. Food Safety: What you should know 2015.http://www.searo.who.int/entity/world_health_day/2015/whd-whatyou-should-know/en/ b
[14] ICMSF. Microorganisms in foods 8 Use of data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance 2011.
[15] Scharff RL. Economic burden from health losses due to foodborne illness in the United States. J Food Prot 2012; 75(1): 123-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-058] [PMID: 22221364]
[16] Sarah K. McLean, Louise A, Dunn E, Palombo A. A pilot study of the microbiological quality of culturally diverse, ready-to-eat Foods from selected retail establishments in melbourne, Australia. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2010; 7: 5.
[17] Bedada TL, Derra FA, Gebre SG, et al. Microbial evaluation of spices in Ethiopia. Open Microbiol J 2018; 12: 422-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874285801812010422]
[18] Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste water: Method 9215 B, Pour Plate Method 2012.
[19] Ethiopia Standard Agencies. ES ISO ES ISO 21527-1:2014 Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and moulds - part 1: Colony count technique in products with water activity greater than 095 2014.
[20] Nordic Committee on Food Analysis. Coliform bacteria Determination in foods and feeds 6th ed NMKL Method 2004.
[21] Ethiopian Standard Agency. ES ISO 6888-1:2018 Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species) - part 1: technique using Baird-Parker agar medium 2018.
[22] Ethiopia Standard Agency ES ISO 6579:2017 Microbiology General Guidance on methods for the detections of Salmonella 2017.
[23] Gilbert RJ, de Louvois J, Donovan T, et al. Guidelines for the microbiological quality of some ready-to-eat foods sampled at the point of sale. Commun Dis Public Health 2000; 3(3): 163-7.
[PMID: 11014026]
[24] Dagadkhair AC, Pakhare KN, Andhale RR, Syed HM. Study of physicochemical and microbial quality of spiced fish sauce made from catla catla fish during storage. Intl. J. Food. Ferment Technol 2016; 6(2): 233-9.
[25] Ashour EEZ, El-Fattah MA. Microbiological hazards during preparation of some ready to eat meals and their control measures. World J Dairy & Food Sci 2013; 8(2): 131-9.
[26] Ana KC, Angela M, Soares C, et al. Medeiros de A, Montenegro,S. Assessment of personal hygiene and practices of food handlers in municipal public schools of Natal. Bra Fd Cont 2008; 20: 807-10.
[27] Suneetha C, Manjula K, Depur B. Quality Assessment of street foods in Tirumala. As. JExperBioSci 2011; 2: 207-11.
[28] Clarence SY, Obinna CN, Shalom NC. Assessment of bacteriological quality of ready to eat food (Meat pie) in Benin City metropolis, Nigeria. Afr J Microbiol Res 2009; 3(6): 390-5.
[29] Carrasco E. Andrés, Morales-Rueda A, García-Gimeno RM. Cross-contamination and recontamination by Salmonella in foods. A review. Food Res Int 2012; 45: 545-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.11.004]
[30] Soriano JM, Rico H, Moltó JC, Mañes J. Microbial evaluation of Spanish potato omelette and cooked meat samples in University restaurants. J Food Prot 2000; 63(9): 1273-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-63.9.1273] [PMID: 10983805]
[31] Syne SM, Ramsubhag A, Adesiyun AA. Microbiological hazard analysis of ready-to-eat meats processed at a food plant in Trinidad, West Indies. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2013; 3: 20450.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/iee.v3i0.20450] [PMID: 23878681]
[32] Kwiri R, Winini C, Tongonya J, et al. Microbiological safety of cooked vended foods in an urban informal market: A case study of Mbare Msika, Harare, Zimbabwe. JNHFS 2014; 3(3): 216-21.
[33] Elson R, Burgess F, Little CL, Mitchell RT. Microbiological examination of ready-to-eat cold sliced meats and pâté from catering and retail premises in the UK. J Appl Microbiol 2004; 96(3): 499-509.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02203.x] [PMID: 14962130]
[34] Oranusi U, Braide W. A study of microbial safety of ready-to-eat foods vended on highways: Onitsha-Owerri,south east Nigeria. IRJM 2012; 3(2): 066-71.
[35] FSANZ. Food Standards Australia New Zealand 2001.www.foodstandards.gov.au
[36] Adeyeye SAO, Oyewole OB, Obadina AO, Omemu AM, Abayomi SO. Microbial Quality and chemical safety of modern convective smoked Guinean Barracuda fish From Lagos State, Nigeria. Aquacult Int 2015; 5(33): 1-10.
[37] Huang R, Dawson CO, Hussain MA. Microbiological quality of selected meat products from the Canterbury Region of New Zealand. Internet Journal of Food Safety 2014; 16: 12-6.
[38] Jerry O, Emmanue U, Chika E, et al. Microbial contamination of ready-to-eat fried chicken meat sold in two selected motor park points in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Int J Pure App Biosci 2015; 3(4): 271-5.
[39] Tavakoli HR, Riazipour M. Microbial quality of cooked meat foods in Tehran Universities Restaurants. Pak J Med Sci 2008; 24(4): 595-9.
[40] ComissãoNacional de Normas e Padrões. Compêndio de Resoluçõesda CNNPA 1995.
[41] Abebe T, ketema T, Bacha K. Microbiological safety and quality of homemade foods among Jimma university community primary school students, and growth potential of isolated pathogens on some traditional sauces, Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. FSQM 2017; 64: 12-22.
[42] Sackey BA, Mensah P, Collison E, Sakyi-Dawson E. Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella and Escherichia coli in live and dressed poultry from metropolitan accra. Int J Food Microbiol 2001; 71(1): 21-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00595-5] [PMID: 11764888]
[43] Stagnitta PV, Micalizzi B, de Guzmán AM. Prevalence of some bacteria yeasts and molds in meat foods in San Luis, Argentina. Cent Eur J Public Health 2006; 14(3): 141-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21101/cejph.a3378] [PMID: 17152228]
[44] Zealand FSAN. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) Agents of Foodborne Illness 2nd ed. 2009.http://www.foodstandards. gov.au/publications/Pages/agentsoffoodborneill5155.a
[45] Gunasena W. Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat meat based food available in temporary food outlets in gall face green, Colombo, Sri lanka. Int J Agric For Life Sci 2016; 4: 38-44.
[46] Lopašovský L, Terentjeva M, Kunová S, Zeleňáková L, Kačániová M. Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods produced in Slovakia. J Microbiol Biotechnol Food Sci 2016; 5: 31-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.15414/jmbfs.2016.5.special1.31-35]
Track Your Manuscript:


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents




Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open