The Open Bioactive Compounds Journal


ISSN: 1874-8473 ― Volume 8, 2020

Ameliorative Potential of Natural Antioxidants Against Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress and Locomotor Impairment in Drosophila melanogaster: A Comparative Study

S. Niveditha, T. Shivanandappa*, S.R Ramesh
Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru- 570006, Karnataka, India



Natural antioxidants show neuroprotective potential to protect against neurodegenerative disorders in experimental animals. There is a need to characterize newer promising neuroprotective natural molecules.


In the present study, we have compared the neuroprotective activity of 4hydroxyisophthalic acid (DHA-I), a novel natural antioxidant from the roots of Decalepis hamiltonii, with the other natural neuroprotective antioxidants, ellagic acid, quercetin and nicotinamide, against paraquat (PQ) neurotoxicity in D. melanogaster.


Flies exposed to multiple (sub-lethal) dose of PQ showed movement disorder characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The four natural antioxidants showed ameliorative effects against PQ neurotoxicity in the sub-acute model as seen in survivability, locomotor activity as well as oxidative stress markers including reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and the endogenous antioxidant defenses.


Our study shows that the antioxidant compounds exhibit varying degrees of protection against PQ-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity with DHA-I, quercetin, and nicotinamide being the most effective and ellagic acid, the least potent in Drosophila. Our results show that mitochondrial Mn-SOD is a critical target for PQ neurotoxicity and the neuroprotection by the antioxidants involves the attenuation of mitochondrial ROS production and oxidative damage.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, Free radicals, Antioxidant enzymes, Mitochondria, Drosophila melanogaster, Neurodegenerative disorders.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2017
Volume: 05
First Page: 43
Last Page: 56
Publisher Id: TOBCJ-5-43
DOI: 10.2174/1874847301705010043

Article History:

Received Date: 05/7/2017
Revision Received Date: 25/09/2017
Acceptance Date: 26/09/2017
Electronic publication date: 14/11/2017
Collection year: 2017

© 2017 Niveditha et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru- 570006, Karnataka, India, Tel: +91 9480475885; E-mail:

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