The Open Clinical Cancer Journal


ISSN: 1874-1894 ― Volume 5, 2011

Oncolytic Effects of the E Variant of Encephalomyocarditis Virus to Human Neuroblastoma in in Vitro and in Vivo

Masazumi Adachi*, 1, 2, Steven E Brooks1, Maxine R. Stein1, Bernice E Franklin1, Francis A Caccavo3
1 Isaac Albert Research Institute of Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center, USA;
2 Department of Pathology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York USA;
3 Public Health Laboratory City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, USA


The oncolytic effects of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus on of human neuroblastoma (NB) were studied in vitro employing NB cell cultures and in vivo employing tumors grown in nude mice and nude rats. In short-term studies, human NB cell (HTB10) cultures were exposed to the virus 104 Tissue Culture Infectious Doses (TCIDs). The TCIDs were used to titer the maximum effect of EMC virus on L-929 cells. In vitro studies showed 100% Cytopathic Effect (CPE) at 48 hours. The CPE was used to observe pathologic effects of the cells. The in vivo studies showed necrosis and degeneration in the tumors grown in nude mice at 7 days following treatment with the virus. The nude mice exhibited a high mortality rate after exposure to the virus. The long-term studies were performed on tumors grown in nude rats, since they were more tolerant to the viral treatment. On the 58th day after the viral treatment of tumor bearing rats, 8 out of the 12 tumors had disappeared, and the remaining 4 tumors were grossly necrotic. The average size of the infected tumors was 2.13 cm2 as compared with 30.5 cm2 in the control. Microscopically the treated tumors showed severe necrosis and microcystic degeneration. The observed gross decrease in treated tumor size together with the presented light and electron microscopic studies, support the potential value of viral treatment of neuroblastoma.

Keywords: Neuroblastoma, encephalomyocarditis virus, virus inoculation, specific molecular receptor, oncolysis.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2009
Volume: 3
First Page: 1
Last Page: 9
Publisher Id: TOCCJ-3-1
DOI: 10.2174/1874189400903010001

Article History:

Received Date: 20/10/2008
Revision Received Date: 30/7/2009
Acceptance Date: 22/8/2009
Electronic publication date: 26/11/2009
Collection year: 2009

© Adachi et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Laboratories, Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center USA, 585 Schenectady Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 11203, USA; Tel: (347) 804-6920; Fax: (718) 604-5777;,

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