Influence of Paraquat on Four Rhizobacteria Strains: Pantoea agglomerans, Rhizobium nepotum, Rhizobium radiobacter and Rhizobium tibeticum
Mohamed Maldani, Btissam Ben Messaoud, Laila Nassiri, Jamal Ibijbijen*
Environment & Soil Microbiology Unit, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco
Soil microorganisms are exposed to herbicides after treatment, which leads to their interaction. The result of this interaction may be the degradation of the herbicides by the microorganisms and by the way, they use the degradation products as an energy source for their own physiological processes, or herbicides have a toxic effect on these microorganisms. Herbicide toxicity becomes severe instantly after application when its concentration in soil is the highest. Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture; inappropriate use of this herbicide represents an immense pollution problem for soil, therefore on microorganisms. However, the knowledge about the effect of paraquat on soil microorganisms has been limited.
The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of paraquat application on four nitrogen-fixing bacteria: Pantoea agglomerans, Rhizobium nepotum, Rhizobium tibeticum and Rhizobium radiobacter.
Paraquat was applied as the sole source of carbon at a rate (0 g/L, 0.5 g/L, 1 g/L, 3 g/L, 6 g/L and 12 g/L). The effect of paraquat treatments was determined by agar diffusion method and the rate of the growth of bacterial colonies in each treatment.
In the agar diffusion method, the bacterial strains were inhibited by paraquat, in which the inhibition zone was wider with the increase of paraquat concentration; also, analysis of the Colony Forming Units (CFUs) mostly showed a declining in bacterial growth. In comparison with the control, the growth of the four strains was decreased by increasing the paraquat concentration. Comparing strains with each other, Pantoea agglomerans is the most resistant strain to paraquat.
Our study has shown the impact of the irrational use of pesticide upon the beneficial bacteria in question. For that, the results of this research have a positive impact on the natural environment, which will have tangible social and economic impacts.
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
* Address correspondence to this author at the Director of Laboratory, Environment & Soil Microbiology Unit, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University, B.P. 11201 Zitoune, Meknes, Morocco; Tel:+212670135002, E-mails: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org.