The Open Nutrition Journal

ISSN: 1874-2882 ― Volume 13, 2019

Feed Intake Patterns and Immediate Glycaemic and Insulinaemic Responses of Horses Following Ingestion of Different Quantities of Starch From Oat, Barley and Grains

Annette Zeyner1, *, Kristin Romanowski2, Aileen Orgis2, Andreas Vernunft2, 3, Jutta Gottschalk4, Almuth Einspanier4, Gabor Koeller5, Monika Wensch-Dorendorf6
1 Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Group Animal Nutrition, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany
2 Chair for Nutritional Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
3 Institute of Reproductive Biology; Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Dummerstorf, Germany
4 Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
5 Department of Large Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
6 Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Biometrics and Informatics in Agriculture Group, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany



Relevant literature indicate that more than 0.8 g starch/kg body weight from compounded feed composed of different starch sources induces disproportionate glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in horses.


It should be investigated whether crushed oats, barley and maize also cause a disproportionate increase in plasma glucose and insulin when fed as the only concentrate in quantities equal to and above 0.8 g starch/kg body weight.


Four mares received hay plus oats, barley and maize, respectively, in quantities equal to 0.8, 1.0 and 2.0 g starch/kg body weight. At the test days, chewing parameters were detected and blood sampled before and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the concentrate meal. Plasma glucose and insulin were measured and areas under the curve were calculated.


Maize was ingested particularly slowly (dry matter basis; P < 0.05), but glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were particularly low (starch basis; P < 0.05). In general, the glycaemic responses were highest with 1 g starch/kg body weight (P < 0.05). The quantity of starch had no effect on the insulinaemic response (P > 0.05). A defined increase in plasma glucose induced the highest insulinaemic response with oat grains.


Oats and barley are ingested faster and induce higher glycaemic and insulinaemic responses than maize. Until 120 min postprandial, elevated quantities of starch from these grains seem to induce no disproportionate or at least linear increase of plasma glucose and insulin. The insulinaemic response to a defined increase of plasma glucose is particularly pronounced with oats.

Keywords: Horse, Cereal grain, Starch, Glucose, Insulin, Feed intake, Chewing.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2017
Volume: 11
First Page: 39
Last Page: 51
Publisher Id: TONUTRJ-11-39
DOI: 10.2174/1874288201711010039

Article History:

Received Date: 03/03/2017
Revision Received Date: 20/04/2017
Acceptance Date: 23/04/2017
Electronic publication date: 21/06/2017
Collection year: 2017

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1232
Abstract HTML Views: 771
PDF Downloads: 349
ePub Downloads: 162
Total Views/Downloads: 2514

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 498
Abstract HTML Views: 352
PDF Downloads: 217
ePub Downloads: 118
Total Views/Downloads: 1185
Geographical View

© 2017 Zeyner et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Science, Group Animal Nutrition, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 11, D-06120 Halle (Saale) Germany; Tel: ++49 (0)345 55-22716; fax: ++49 (0)345 55-27050; E-mail:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents


Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open