The Open Public Health Journal

ISSN: 1874-9445 ― Volume 11, 2018

Development and Validation of the Short Multidimensional Well-Being Questionnaire (SMWQ)

Lucile Bigot1, 3, 4, Catherine Garncarzyk1, 2, Antoine Gauthier1, 3, 4, Gaelle Quarck1, 3, 4, Fabrice Dosseville1, 2, *
1 Normandie Université, F-14032 Caen, France
2 UNICAEN, CESAMS, EA4260, F-14032 Caen, France
3 UNICAEN, COMETE, U1075, F-14032 Caen, France
4 INSERM, U1075, F-14032 Caen, France



Psychological well-being and health are closely linked at older ages. It is widely recognized that adapted regular physical exercise improves drastically both the physical and emotional well-being and allows older adults to stay healthy longer, with a better quality of life. In the framework of a European project (MOTION) to increase the life expectancy, independence and quality of life of older adults, the aim of the current research was to develop and validate a brief, multi-faceted, self-report measure of well-being in older adults.


The aim of Study 1 was to establish the factor structure of the newly developed measure using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). The aim of Study 2 was to replicate the measure's factor structure using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and to evaluate test-retest reliability and convergent validity.


Analyses allowed generating a model of well-being comprising four dimensions: Perceived physical value, self-esteem and self-efficacy, socialization, and emotional reactions.


The findings suggest that the SMWQ is appropriate for use with older adults and can help researchers and health professionals to assess the effects of APA programs.

Keywords: Well-being, Exercise, Adults, Framework, Reliability, Socialization, Emotional reactions.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2017
Volume: 10
First Page: 25
Last Page: 31
Publisher Id: TOPHJ-10-25
DOI: 10.2174/1874944501710010025

Article History:

Received Date: 10/11/2016
Revision Received Date: 14/01/2017
Acceptance Date: 24/01/2017
Electronic publication date: 17/04/2017
Collection year: 2017

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© 2017 Bigot et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Université de Caen Normandie, UFR STAPS, 2 boulevard du Maréchal Juin 14032 Caen Cedex, France; Tel: 0033231567282; E-mail:


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