A 4-years Geographical Prevalence Trend Study of Peruvian Childhood Anemia
Carlos Sotomayor-Beltran1, *, Hernan Matta-Solis1, 2
1 Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Ciencias y Humanidades, Lima, Peru
2 Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Privada Norbert Wiener, Lima, Peru
Childhood anemia in Peru is categorized as a moderate public health problem. However, there are some regions in Peru where this nutritional condition is still considered severe.
To study the evolution of the prevalence of anemia in children aged 6 months to 5 years at different regional levels in Peru during the 2015-2018 period.
The spatial analysis was carried out using publicly available data from the Information System of Nutritional Status, which is managed by the Peruvian Ministry of Health, and a geographical information system software. Linear regression was used to assess the trend of the prevalences.
An overall downward trend of the prevalence of childhood anemia was observed at a national level during the 4-years under study. At natural and administrative regional levels, we noticed downward trends occurring at different rates. As of 2018, the natural region of the coast where more urban areas are located, presents the lowest prevalence (30%), while the natural region of the jungle has the highest one (36.9%). We have also alarmingly observed the presence of a cluster of high prevalences in the eastern side of Peru.
We suggest that diverse risk factors might be producing the high prevalence in the cluster as well as other administrative regions across Peru: the education of the family, consumption of cow's milk, parasitic infections and the practice of mining activities. The aforementioned risk factors pose a threat to Peruvian public health and also the environment.
Keywords: Anemia, Children, Prevalence, Geographic Information Systems, Risk Factors, Peru.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sciences and Humanities, Lima, Peru; Tel: +51 17151533; E-mail: email@example.com