The Open Public Health Journal

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The Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin M1 in Yoghurt Samples from Hamadan, Iran

Ali Heshmati1, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Mozaffari Nejad2, *, Tayebeh Ghyasvand1
1 Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, Nutrition Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Hamadan, Iran
2 Nutrition Health Research Center, Student Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Hamadan, Iran



Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hepatocarcinogenic and hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1, detected in milk and milk products.


The aim of our research was to determine the incidence and risk assessment of AFM1 through the consumption of yoghurt in Hamadan province of Iran.


Fifty yoghurt samples were gathered from various areas of Hamadan province, Iran and tested for AFM1 by ELISA technique. The estimated daily intake (EDI) and the liver cancer incidence of aflatoxin M1 were determined.


AFM1 was detected in 43 (86%) samples, (mean: 28.56 ng/kg; range: <5-98.65 ng/kg). The level of AFM1 in 9 (18%) samples was above the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/kg). The AFM1 intake through yoghurt consumption in various population groups ranged from 0.016 to 0.032 ng/kg bw/day in mean consumers and 0.019 to 0.046 ng/kg bw/day in high consumers.


The AFM1 intake through yoghurt contributed a slight part from the overall incidence of liver cancer in the Iranian population. From the findings of the current study, it can be derived that although the high percentage of yoghurt samples in Iran proved to be contaminated with AFM1 contents, did not show a public health concern considering the European Commission (EC) and the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI) maximum limits.

Keywords: Aflatoxin M1, Yoghurt, ELISA, Hamadan, Risk assessment, European commission.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 13
First Page: 512
Last Page: 517
Publisher Id: TOPHJ-13-512
DOI: 10.2174/1874944502013010512

Article History:

Received Date: 27/5/2020
Revision Received Date: 19/7/2020
Acceptance Date: 27/7/2020
Electronic publication date: 22/09/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Heshmati et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Nutrition Health Research Center, Student Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Hamadan, Iran; Tel: +989120193652; E-mail:

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