The Open Public Health Journal

ISSN: 1874-9445 ― Volume 13, 2020

Social and Ethical Impact of Advanced Artificial and Biological Enhancements

Athanasios Alexiou1, 2, *, Panagiota Simou1, Filia Alexiou3, Stylianos Chatzichronis1, 4, Ghulam Md Ashraf5, 6, *
1 Novel Global Community Educational Foundation, Hebersham, Australia
2 AFNP Med Austria, Wien, Austria
3 Department of History and Philosophy of Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
4 Department of Informatics and Telecommunications, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
5 King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia



While modern humans seek ways to extend life expectancy, the necessity of advanced bioengineering tools for the production of effective human enhancement applications appears as compelling as ever.


The technological future of Homo sapiens has been scheduled within a quantum environment and advanced physical interventions are imperative to occur in the anatomy of modern humans, including genetic improvement and human cloning. New terminologies and latest projects such as genome editing, mind uploading and tissue engineering applications for the growth of new organs are issues of discussion in this paper.


Several advanced biotechnological methods are presented in this paper, including the 14-days rule, the 2045 Initiative project and the CRISPR technique and their social and ethical implications are discussed.


The exponential aging of the population results in rapidly increasing demands for next-generation drugs and innovative pharmaceutical products that target individualized genetic treatment, resulting in the emergence of controversial ethical and social implications in the forthcoming post-Homo sapiens Era.


The next-generation ethics must be clarified, an interdisciplinary debate should be initiated, and all the different perspectives must be recorded and evaluated to adopt the most efficient practices for controversial topics like the potential digital immortality.

Keywords: 14-days rule, 2045 Initiative project, CRISPR, Designer babies, Enhancements, Evolution, Eugenics, Genetic variety, Homo sapiens, Homo Universalis, Human cloning, Immortality, Mind uploading, Next-generation ethics, Tissue engineering.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 13
First Page: 62
Last Page: 68
Publisher Id: TOPHJ-13-62
DOI: 10.2174/1874944502013010062

Article History:

Received Date: 08/10/2019
Revision Received Date: 25/01/2020
Acceptance Date: 26/01/2020
Electronic publication date: 20/03/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Alexiou et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to these authors at the Novel Global Community Educational Foundation, Hebersham, Australia; Tel: +306987467249;
E-mail: and King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Tel: +966596738355;

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