COVID 19 Pandemic; A Review on Understanding the Mode of Transmission and Application of Strategies to Delay/Stop Transmission with Special Reference to India
Sameer Singhal1, *, Prachi Singhal2, Amit Mittal3, B K Agarwal4, MahalaquaNazli Khatib5, Abhay Gaidhane6
1 Department of Respiratory Medicine, MMIMSR, MMU, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India
2 Department of Dentistry, Government Medical College, Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Radiodiagnosis, MMIMSR, MMU, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India
4 Department of Medicine, MMIMSR, MMU, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India
5 Department of Physiology and Head, Division of Evidence Synthesis, School of Epidemiology and Public Health, JNMC, DMIMS, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
6 Department of PSM and Director, School of Epidemiology and Public Health, JNMC, DMIMS, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
SARS CoV-2 has globally affected more than 31 hundred thousand population with more than 2 hundred thousand deaths till date, since its inception from Wuhan, China in December 2019. World is still clueless regarding definitive treatment for this highly contagious disease. Till then we have to rely on time tested methods to delay/stop transmission of this viral disease by observing social isolation, hand hygiene and wearing face mask.
The main objective of this review paper is to focus on different modes of transmission of this virus, comparison of this virus with previous similar analogy viral diseases like SARS and MERS and different strategies that can be planned or are ongoing to reduce/delay transmission of this virus in community contacts, especially in context to India.
PUBMED, Google Scholar and BioRxiv search was performed with keywords; COVID- 19, mode of transmission, infection, India, BCG. Around 538 eligible papers were evaluated from time period of January 1 to 29 April 2020 and results were summarized
On analysis of different papers on mode of transmission it was found that this virus is highly contagious and spreads through air droplet, close contact, through fomites and different metallic surfaces and through aerosol in surroundings with high aerosol generating procedures only. Also, it can spread both in asymptomatic and symptomatic phase equally so early testing is essential. Also, it is mutating in different host environments so it is imperative to include different strains in vaccine preparation.
Results demonstrate the fact that early screening, social distancing, isolation of symptomatic patients, respiratory etiquette are the main armaments presently to deal with this virus till effective treatment or vaccine becomes available in the near future. Furthermore, we would like to suggest the Indian government to create a National Viral Disease Management Board on lines of National Tuberculosis Elimination program to prevent and control such viral outbreaks in future.
Keywords: COVID-19, Mode of transmission, Air droplet infection, India, SARS CoV-2, MERS, SARS.
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Respiratory Medicine, MMIMSR, MMU, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India; Tel: 91-9761386415; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org