The Open Conference Proceedings Journal

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ISSN: 2210-2892 ― Volume 10, 2020

Applicability of Micro Inoculation Culture (MIC) for Rapid Monitoring of Total Coliform Contaminants in the Food Industry

Wipavadee Sangadkit1, Anat Deepatana2, Aluck Thipayarat3, *
1 Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha u-tid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Burapha University, 169 Long-Hard Bangsaen Road, Saen Sook Sub-district, Mueang District, Chonburi 20131, Thailand
3 Office of Education, Faculty of Engineering, Burapha University, 169 Long-Hard Bangsaen Road, Saen Sook Sub-district, Mueang District, Chonburi 20131, Thailand


Unlike medical samples from clinics, samples associated with food products and the environment they come into contact with during their processing are characterized by low initial cell counts and large sample volumes. This calls for different strategies of handling, especially in low-resource settings and in less advanced food industrial laboratories. This paper compares three popular industrial methodologies; MPN method, Petrifilm by 3M, and the standard pour plate technique, relative to a modified surface spread technique using 96-well microtiter plates (MIC). The colony enumeration results obtained from each technique showed good agreement. The miniaturized rapid protocol efficiently managed a large number of samples using multichannel autopipettes and a high-throughput design utilizing 96-well microtiter plates. Useful colony counts were obtained within 12-16 h. The analytical efficacy of the miniaturized protocol surpassed those of the three conventional methods. The colony counts from ready-to-eat product samples showed comparable results to the pour plate technique, displaying good agreement with the universally-accepted standard. The feedback by QC staff from a local Thai food factory revealed good overall acceptance of the MIC method with respect to usability, protocol design and method efficiency. The proposed miniaturized technique gave highly consistent results of colony count numbers and good colony separation. This colony enumeration consistency suggests that the miniaturized rapid protocol can economically replace the slower more complex standard protocols as an in-house protocol for food processing environment swabs.

Keywords: Chromocult® Coliform agar, Coliforms, Environmental sample, Escherichia coli, Practical miniaturized technique, Rapid colony enumeration.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2016
Volume: 7
First Page: 126
Last Page: 133
Publisher Id: TOPROCJ-7-1-126
DOI: 10.2174/2210289201607010126

Article History:

Received Date: 29/6/2015
Revision Received Date: 20/05/2016
Acceptance Date: 31/05/2016
Electronic publication date: 30/06/2016
Collection year: 2016

© Sangadkit et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Office of Education, Faculty of Engineering, Burapha University, 169 Long-Hard Bangsaen Road, Saen Sook Sub-district, Mueang District, Chonburi 2013 1, Thailand; Tel.: +66 2 4709246; Fax: +66 2 4709240; Email:

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