The Open Cancer Immunology Journal




ISSN: 1876-4010 ― Volume 8, 2019
CASE REPORT

Nivolumab Induced Acute Severe Toxicity in Lung Adenocarcinoma



Josune Azcuna Sagarduy*, Eider Azkona Uribelarrea, Itziar Rubio Echevarria, Sergio Carrera Revilla, Alberto Muñoz Llarena, Guillermo López Vivanco
Hospital Universitario de Cruces (Osakidetza) Plaza de Cruces, S/N, 48903 Baracaldo, Vizcaya, Spain

Abstract

Background:

Immunotherapy has recently revolutionized the world of oncology. Nivolumab an IgG4 targeting PD-1 receptor has been approved in metastatic melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-small cell lung cancer. It works as a checkpoint inhibitor, allowing the immune system to clear cancer, and it is this mechanism of action which explains its toxicity also named as immmune-related adverse events.

Case Presentation:

This report describes the case of a 65-year-old female with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma treated with nivolumab. After 19º cycle she presented acute severe toxicity with pneumonitis, hypophisitis and thrombocytopenia. She was successfully treated with high dose steroids and immunoglobulins.

Conclusion:

Immune-related adverse events associated with nivolumab are usually nonspecific, with lots of differential diagnosis. They often resolve with prompt management, however, they may get severe if treatment is not retired and systemic immunosupression with corticosteroids is initiated. As shown in this case, we must be attentive throughout the treatment and even after the end of the treatment, since not all cases occur according to what is described in the literature.

Keywords: Nivolumab, Immune-related adverse events, Pneumonitis, Hypophisitis, Thrombocytopenia, Lung Adenocarcinoma.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 7
First Page: 1
Last Page: 6
Publisher Id: TOCIJ-7-1
DOI: 10.2174/1876401001807010001

Article History:

Received Date: 23/11/2017
Revision Received Date: 7/03/2018
Acceptance Date: 11/03/2018
Electronic publication date: 26/03/2018
Collection year: 2018

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© 2018 Sagarduy et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Plaza de Cruces, S/N, 48903 Baracaldo, Vizcaya, Spain, Tel: 0034 94600633; E-mail: josune.azcunasagarduy@osakidetza.eus




1. BACKGROUND

Lung cancer causes the greatest number of cancer deaths, globally (1.59 million deaths/year) [1Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 2015; 136(5): E359-86.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29210] [PMID: 25220842] ]. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85-90% of lung cancers [2Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2011; 61(2): 69-90.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/caac.20107] [PMID: 21296855] ]. In advanced disease, conventional treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy, are rarely curative. Nevertheless, they provide symptom relief and benefit in survival. Immunotherapy has revolutionized the landscape of cancer therapy, showing durable remissions and prolonged survival. Based on the CHECKMATE 063 [3Rizvi NA, Mazières J, Planchard D, et al. Activity and safety of nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, for patients with advanced, refractory squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (CheckMate 063): a phase 2, single-arm trial. Lancet Oncol 2015; 16(3): 257-65.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(15)70054-9] [PMID: 25704439] ] and CHECKMATE 017 [4Brahmer J, Reckamp KL, Baas P, et al. Nivolumab versus docetaxel in advanced squamous-cell non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2015; 373(2): 123-35.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1504627] [PMID: 26028407] ] studies in squamous histology and a phase III trial in non-squamous [5Borghaei H, Paz-Ares L, Horn L, et al. Nivolumab versus docetaxel in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2015; 373(17): 1627-39.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1507643] [PMID: 26412456] ], nivolumab was approved by the FDA and EMA for second-line treatment of NSCLC. Nivolumab is an Ig G4 monoclonal human antibody targeting Programmed Cell Death -1 (PD-1) receptor and blocking its interaction with its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. Receptor PD-1 is a negative regulator of T-lymphocytes controlling the immune response and immunity homeostasis in physiological conditions. This mechanism of action explains its toxicity, commonly known as immune-related Adverse Events (irAEs). In general, as with pembrolizumab (another anti-PD1, which has also demonstrated activity in melanoma, NSCLC and bladder cancer), the severity of irAEs is mild to moderate with a frequency of grade 3-4 adverse drug reactions of ≤2% for any event term. This case describes some of these irAEs in a woman who had been treated with nivolumab for 19 cycles.

2. CASE REPORT

In August 2015 a 65year-old woman with hypertension and asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis, was diagnosed with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma (cT4 N3 M1b; infradiaphragmatic lymph node metastasis) without EGFR mutation or ALK translocation susceptible of target treatment. She received first-line treatment with cisplatin- pemetrexed and bevacizumab [6Sandler A, Gray R, Perry MC. Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 2542-50., 7Reck M, von Pawel J, Zatloukal P. Phase III trial of cisplatin plus gemcitabine with either placebo or bevacizumab as first-line therapy for nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer: AVAil. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 1227-34.] presenting progressive disease with the appearance of new pulmonary nodules after the third cycle.

Within a widespread use, on January 2015, she started Nivolumab (3mg/kg every two weeks) achieving radiological partial response according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guidelines.

On September 2016, after 18 cycles, she was admitted to hospital due to a severe headache. She was diagnosed with 2 brain metastasis while she maintained partial response outside the Central Nervous System (CNS). On October 2016, she received radiosurgery (20Gys) to both lesions. During this period of time, the treatment with Nivolumab was withheld and she received high doses of corticosteroids.

In November 2016, a new CT scan evaluation was performed where she maintained stable disease. The treatment with Nivolumab was reassumed (19º cycle) and soon after, she was admitted to hospital with a 5-day history of progressive dyspnea without cough, expectoration or fever. On admission, she was afebrile, with normal blood pressure (125/63 mmHg) and cardiac rhythm (79 beats/min). Her respiratory rate was 24 breaths/min, with an oxygen saturation of 88% by pulse oximetry while breathing room air and 93% while receiving supplementary oxygen at a flow of 4 liter per minute. Cardiac auscultation revealed a regular rate and rhythm. Lung auscultation revealed general hypoventilation with dry bilateral crackles. On examination of extremities, no cyanosis or peripheral edema was noted. Arterial blood gas revealed a normal pH and PaCO2 but significant hypoxemia with a PaO2 of 40 mm Hg while breathing room air. The rest of laboratory testing was normal except for anemia grade 2. The chest radiograph revealed diffuse bilateral interstitial infiltrates on both sides, and a CT scan of the chest Fig. (1) showed patchy opacification, predominantly involving perihilar segments, and bilateral pleural effusion.

Fig. (1)
CT scan of Chest showing patchy opacification and bilateral pleural effusion.


The differential diagnosis was consistent with hydropic decompensation, diffuse infectious disease, respiratory distress or nivolumab-induced pneumonitis.

Due to the suspicion of nivolumab induced pneumonitis treatment with prednisone, 1mg/kg/day was initiated with antibiotherapy with ceftriaxone and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole to cover a possible opportunistic infection. However, there was no improvement after 72 hours, so the dose of prednisone was elevated to 3 mg/kg/day. Also, a bronchoscopy with a Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) was performed which revealed the presence of P. jiroveci without finding its antigen. Cytology of BAL, as well as other microbiological studies (including serologies) was negative. With these results and due to their uncertain significance, the patient was evaluated by infectious disease department who indicated continuing treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. After 10 days she improved and was able to walk long distances without supplementary oxygen.

Nevertheless, she started with neurological alterations such as disorientation and oscillating confused state. She denied having visual alterations or headache. Laboratory testing revealed hyponatremia grade 3 (sodium (Na) 126mEq [ 135 - 145 mEq]), thrombocytopenia grade 4 (21000 platelets/µL [135000 - 450000 ]) and panhipopitiutarism that was not present on admission with T4 0.3 ng/dL [0.8 - 1.8 ], T3 0.5 pg/mL [1.4 - 4.4 ], TSH (Thyrotropin) 0.40 µU/mL [0.5 - 6.3 ], Thyroperoxidase (TPO) Ac. 3. A cranial CT and a magnetic resonance Fig. (2) were performed with the presence of the 2 previously treated metastases without change but with no radiologic evidence of hypofisitis.

Fig. (2)
Cranial CT and a magnetic resonance showing a normal pituitary gland.


Because of the hyponatremia, autoimmune adrenalitis was one of the first differential diagnoses, which was rapidly dismissed when normal aldosterone levels were found. Thus other differential diagnoses were considered such as syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting. Hyponatremia was resolved with hydroelectrolyte reposition, which reinforces the later hypothesis.

Trombocytopenia was suspected to be iatrogenic, therefore trimethoprim-sufametoxazole was discontinued after completing 15 days of treatment.

In order to dismiss other causes, a bone marrow biopsy was performed. It showed a medullar hypoplasia. Also, PF4hepAc were negative, so low molecular weight heparin as a cause was rejected.

Corticosteroid treatment was not enough as there was no improvement, so immunoglobulins were administered. After a week the patient started improving gradually but with a severe steroid myopathy. She started rehabilitation at hospital and continued in a rehabilitation hospital center where she died several weeks later with a liver failure due to new multiple hepatic metastases.

3. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

Immunotherapy is usually better tolerated than chemotherapy. Its toxicity (also known as immune- related adverse events) is rarely severe in intensity and it is believed to arise from general immunologic enhancement. If grade 2 toxicity is presented, treatment should be withheld; On the other hand, if patients experience grade 3 or 4 toxicity, like in our case, treatment cessation and immunosuppression with systemic corticosteroids is required.

Several IrAEs have been associated with nivolumab including, fatigue, hypersensitivity, infusion reactions and other organ-especific toxicity such as skin, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, endocrine, renal, liver or hematologic [8Eigentler TK, Hassel JC, Berking C. Diagnosis, monitoring and management of immune-related adverse drug reactions of anti-PD-1 antibody therapy. Cancer Treat Rev 2016; 45: 7-18.]. The median time of onset of these IrAEs varies depending on the affected organ: pneumonitis has been related on 9 weeks, endocrine from 4 to 18 weeks. In the reported case all of them started after the 19º cycle of nivolumab (+/-40 week after the beginning of this treatment) and were grade 3.

In what concerns our case, the initial suspicion was a nivolumab-induced pneumonitis, which is described in up to 10% of patients treated with nivolumab, but only 2% were grade 3 or more. As commented before this diagnosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, thus either pulmonary infection or progressive disease needed to be excluded first [9Champiat S, Lambotte O, Barreau E, et al. Management of immune checkpoint blockade dysimmune toxicities: A collaborative position paper. Ann Oncol 2016; 27(4): 559-74.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdv623] [PMID: 26715621] ]. The clinical presentation of pneumonitis, is often unspecific, as patients usually complaint of unproductive cough and dyspnea, with or without hypoxemia. CT scan of the chest may show multiple radiologic images. Bronchoscope with BLA may help rule out pulmonary infection.

In order to exclude pulmonary infection (including opportunistic infections) empiric antibiotic therapy was started from the beginning with ceftriaxone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

Although Pneumocystis jiroveci DNA was present in BAL, no antigen was found by immunofluorescence, and quantitative DNA copies did not rule out an infection, because colonization is also possible. In fact, Pneumocystis organisms are commonly found in healthy individuals’ lungs, but it is only when both cellular and humoral immunity are defective, that disease occurs. In this sense, it is important to note that National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for the prevention and treatment of cancer-related infections recommend considering Pneumocystis prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, atovaquone, or pentamidine for patients treated with 20 mg of prednisone equivalent daily for at least four weeks [10National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Prevention and Treatment of Cancer-Related Infections Version 1.2018. 2017 Dec 1; National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Abstract available at https://www.nccn.org/professionals/ physician_gls/pdf/ infections.pdf 2018.].

After respiratory symptoms improved, she referred fatigue and started with neurologic alterations. Once CNS progression was excluded, other differential diagnoses had to be ruled out. These neurological events could be due to nivolumab since a range of neurological events have been described, including polyneuropathy, facial and abducens nerve paresis and demyelination [9Champiat S, Lambotte O, Barreau E, et al. Management of immune checkpoint blockade dysimmune toxicities: A collaborative position paper. Ann Oncol 2016; 27(4): 559-74.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdv623] [PMID: 26715621] ]. However in our case symptomatology was unspecific and the possibility of hypophisitis had to be evaluated, as early diagnosis help avoid serious consequences.

In the case of hypophisitis, symptomatology may range from mild fatigue, arthralgias, loss of libido to more serious symptomatology like headache, visual changes, profound dizziness and nausea [11Torino F, Barnabei A, Paragliola RM, Marchetti P, Salvatori R, Corsello SM. Endocrine side-effects of anti-cancer drugs: mAbs and pituitary dysfunction: Clinical evidence and pathogenic hypotheses. Eur J Endocrinol 2013; 169(6): R153-64.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-13-0434] [PMID: 24001893] ].

If suspected, MRI is recommended: The main finding is usually pituitary enlargement and nodularity, however normal pituitary gland (like in our case) or atrophy does not rule out hypophisitis. Laboratory testing usually shows low levels of the hormones produced by the pituitary: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), TSH, FSH, LH, Growth Hormone (GH), prolactin.

It is possible to have one or more axes affected. These findings also help differentiating hypophysitis from primary adrenal insufficiency and primary hypothyroidism. Taking into account all the results, we were facing a hypohysitis. Nevertheless, we cannot forget that the patient had received cerebral radiosurgery. In fact, radiotherapy may also cause hypophisitis, although in our case the dose and localisation were different. Also of note is that endocrinopathies are usually not reversible and patients often require long-term supplementation of the affected hormones, as our patient.

With the appearance of hyponatremia, adrenal insufficiency was suspected. This is the most critical endocrinopathy which can cause dehydration, hypotension, and electrolyte imbalances.

However, in our case, as we were using high doses of corticosteroid ACTH was presumably low, so aldosterone was measured. Aldosterone levels were normal so primary adrenalitis was ruled out. One of the differential diagnoses for the hyponatremia was cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. Differentiation of this disorder from SIADH, can be difficult because both can present with hyponatremia and concentrated urine with natriuresis. However, distinguishing between the 2 disorders is important because treatment options differ [12Peters JP, Welt LG, Sims EA, Orloff J, Needham J. A salt-wasting syndrome associated with cerebral disease. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 1950; 63: 57-64.[PMID: 14855556] ]. In our case hyponatremia was solved with suerotherapy.

Hematologic toxicity when nivolumab is used is more commonly seen in lymphoma studies. There are two main causes of thrombocytopenia: insufficient production in bone marrow (due to folic or vitamin b12 deficit, infections, myelodisplasic disease and drug-induced bone marrow toxicity) or excessive destruction (hiperesplenism, drugs, CID). In our case a bone marrow biopsy was performed which showed medullar hypoplasia and PF4hepAc were negative, so the low molecular weight heparin as a cause was rejected. The possibility of drug induced thrombocytopenia should be considered as trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole has been reltated as its cause [13].In our case, the drug cessation was not enough and immunglobulins were needed.

In conclusion, IrAes, are a unique spectrum of toxicity to which we are not yet used to, but we will have to face them more and more often. Most of the symptomatology is mild and nonspecific, with lots of differential diagnosis, however, they may get severe unless prompt treatment. It is essential for both patients and physicians to prevent this toxicity (knowing the toxicity spectrum, identifying dysimunity risk factors), to anticipate their development, to detect them, and when this toxicity is present it is essential to treat it together with organs’ specialists. As shown in this case, we must be attentive throughout the treatment and even after the end of the treatment, since not all cases occur according to what is described in the literature.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

NSCLC = Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
irAEs = immune-related Adverse Events
RECIST = Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors
CNS = Central Nervous System
BAL = Bronchoalveolar Lavage
TSH = Thyrotropin
TPO = Thyroperoxidase
LH = Lutropin
FSH = Folitropi
ACTH = Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
GH = Growth Hormone
SIADH = Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

Not applicable.

HUMAN/ANIMAL RIGHTS

No Animal/Humans were used for studies that are basis of this research.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Informed written consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case. Consent is available on request.

FUNDING

No funding was required for the case report.

AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS

JA and EA wrote the manuscript. IR, SC and GL proofread the manuscript. AM, JA and EA primarily took care of patient. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

COMPETING INTERESTS

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

None declared.

REFERENCES

[1] Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 2015; 136(5): E359-86.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29210] [PMID: 25220842]
[2] Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2011; 61(2): 69-90.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/caac.20107] [PMID: 21296855]
[3] Rizvi NA, Mazières J, Planchard D, et al. Activity and safety of nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, for patients with advanced, refractory squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (CheckMate 063): a phase 2, single-arm trial. Lancet Oncol 2015; 16(3): 257-65.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(15)70054-9] [PMID: 25704439]
[4] Brahmer J, Reckamp KL, Baas P, et al. Nivolumab versus docetaxel in advanced squamous-cell non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2015; 373(2): 123-35.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1504627] [PMID: 26028407]
[5] Borghaei H, Paz-Ares L, Horn L, et al. Nivolumab versus docetaxel in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2015; 373(17): 1627-39.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1507643] [PMID: 26412456]
[6] Sandler A, Gray R, Perry MC. Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 2542-50.
[7] Reck M, von Pawel J, Zatloukal P. Phase III trial of cisplatin plus gemcitabine with either placebo or bevacizumab as first-line therapy for nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer: AVAil. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 1227-34.
[8] Eigentler TK, Hassel JC, Berking C. Diagnosis, monitoring and management of immune-related adverse drug reactions of anti-PD-1 antibody therapy. Cancer Treat Rev 2016; 45: 7-18.
[9] Champiat S, Lambotte O, Barreau E, et al. Management of immune checkpoint blockade dysimmune toxicities: A collaborative position paper. Ann Oncol 2016; 27(4): 559-74.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdv623] [PMID: 26715621]
[10] National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Prevention and Treatment of Cancer-Related Infections Version 1.2018. 2017 Dec 1; National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Abstract available at https://www.nccn.org/professionals/ physician_gls/pdf/ infections.pdf 2018.
[11] Torino F, Barnabei A, Paragliola RM, Marchetti P, Salvatori R, Corsello SM. Endocrine side-effects of anti-cancer drugs: mAbs and pituitary dysfunction: Clinical evidence and pathogenic hypotheses. Eur J Endocrinol 2013; 169(6): R153-64.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-13-0434] [PMID: 24001893]
[12] Peters JP, Welt LG, Sims EA, Orloff J, Needham J. A salt-wasting syndrome associated with cerebral disease. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 1950; 63: 57-64.[PMID: 14855556]
[13] Arnold DM, Kukaswadia S, Nazi I, et al. A systematic evaluation of laboratory testing for drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost 2013; 11(1): 169-76.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.12052] [PMID: 23121994]

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