The Open Public Health Journal




ISSN: 1874-9445 ― Volume 13, 2020
RESEARCH ARTICLE

The Relationship between Communication Skills and Intellectual Health in Senior-Year Students of Paramedicine School at Kashan University of Medical Sciences 2019



Fatemeh R. Jeddi1, Faeze Ghaffary1, Razieh Farrahi1, *
1 Department of Health Information Management and Technology, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

Abstract

Introduction and Objective:

Communication skills are the ability to communicate effectively and efficiently with others, which plays a role in people's intellectual and psychological health; therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between communication skills and intellectual health in senior students of Paramedicine School at Kashan University of Medical Sciences.

Methods:

The present study is descriptive-analytical, which was performed cross-sectionally in 2019 on 95 senior students of the Paramedicine School of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. The census method was used in this study due to the limitations of the statistical population. The data collection tool consisted of three parts: Participants' demographic profile, Barton's standard communication skills questionnaire (1990), and intellectual health questionnaire based on the intellectual health scale of entrepreneurs' personality traits assessment questionnaire. The questionnaire was presented to the students in person. After collecting data, it was entered into SPSS 22 software and analyzed with descriptive indices (mean and standard deviation) and analytical statistics (Pearson's correlation and t-test).

Results:

The total mean score of the communication skills in students was 59.61±5.82. There was a direct and significant relationship between verbal and listening skills (r = 0.32, p = 0.003), verbal and feedback skills (r = 0.43, p = 0.001), listening and feedback skills (r = 0.41, p = 0.001). The mean mental health of the participants in the study was 33.45±5.02 There was a positive correlation between communication skills and intellectual health in students (r = 0.2, p = .07).

Conclusion:

Communication skills affect intellectual health. Therefore, it is recommended that educational workshops on communication skills and how to communicate be held for students at the beginning and during the study, and that psychological counseling centers be set up or become more active in the university.

Keywords: Communication skills, Health, Intellectual health, Students, Medical sciences, Counseling centers.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 13
First Page: 484
Last Page: 488
Publisher Id: TOPHJ-13-484
DOI: 10.2174/1874944502013010484

Article History:

Received Date: 12/04/2020
Revision Received Date: 16/7/2020
Acceptance Date: 22/7/2020
Electronic publication date: 22/09/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Jeddi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Health Information Management Research Center, Department of Health Information Management and Technology, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, No. 5, Qotb-e Ravandi Blvd., P.O. Box: 8715973449, Kashan, Iran; Tel: +98-3155548883; Fax: +98-3155548883; E-mail: Farrahir1@gmail.com





1. INTRODUCTION

Communication is the process of conveying messages, ideas, facts, opinions, information, and attitudes from one person to another [1Zeyghami Mohammadi S, Haghighi S. The association between nurses’ communication skills and nurse-physician relationship and collaboration in Alborz hospital of Karaj in 2008. Medical Science J Isl Azd Uni-Tehran Med Brch 2009; 19(2): 121-7.]. To communicate effectively, people must have skills in this area. Communication skills are also an important part of life skills that are defined as the ability to communicate effectively and efficiently with others [2Gheirati E, Shabanifar A, Akhlaghi M, Peyman N. Relationship between communication skills and mental health among the students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran SJSPH 2016; 14(3): 61-72.]. Communication skills are one of the main concerns in human life [3Kourkouta L, Papathanasiou IV. Communication in nursing practice. Mater Sociomed 2014; 26(1): 65-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/msm.2014.26.65-67] [PMID: 24757408]
]. The importance of communication skills is such that some experts attribute human success in social life to them [4Chant S, Jenkinson T, Randle J, Russell G. Communication skills: some problems in nursing education and practice. J Clin Nurs 2002; 11(1): 12-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2702.2002.00553.x] [PMID: 11845748]
]. In the field of health care, there is two-way communication between the patient and the medical staff. Therefore, the communication skills of medical staff play an important role in establishing this relationship and also judging the competence and qualification of employees in the health care field [5Khatami S, Asefzadeh S. Communication skills of medical interns of Qazvin UMS 2007; 79-81., 6Jakovljevic MB, Djordjevic V, Markovic V, Milovanovic O, Rancic NK, Cupara SM. Cross-sectional survey on complementary and alternative medicine awareness among health care professionals and students using CHBQ questionnaire in a Balkan country. Chin J Integr Med 2013; 19(9): 650-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-013-1434-6] [PMID: 23975129]
]. Numerous studies have always shown that the Communication skills of care providers in communicating effectively with patients play an important role in their satisfaction [7Brown JB, Boles M, Mullooly JP, Levinson W. Effect of clinician communication skills training on patient satisfaction. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131(11): 822-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-131-11-199912070-00004] [PMID: 10610626]
]. Medical science students who will be working in medical centers in the future have a serious need to acquire these skills to communicate with the patient and increase their learning [8Vahabi B, Vahabi A, Roshani D. A study of interpersonal communication skills and its associated factors among students of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, 2015. J Med Edu Devlop 2017; 9(24): 102-12.]. A study by Shahjooi et al. showed that medical students have poor communication skills [9Shahjooi S, Jalalmanesh S, Ebrahimi E. Relationship between critical thinking and interpersonal communication skills in nursing students of Azad University Tehran medical Branch. J Nurs Educ 2014; 3(3): 1-13.] and other studies assessed the level of students' communication skills as average [10Barati M, Salehi O, Samavati A, Moeini B. Assessment of communication skills level among medical college students: verbal, listening, and feedback skills. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac 2012; 10(2): 145-54., 11Hemmati-Maslakpak M, Sheikhbaglu M, Baghaie R. Relationship between the communication skill of nurse-patient with patient safety in the critical care units. J Clin Nurs Midwifery 2014; 3.]. In Fazel's study entitled Attitudes toward learning communication skills among medical students of a university in Iran, medical students have a positive attitude in learning communication skills, and on the other hand, it is stated in this study that curriculum planners should not lose negative attitudes, but should minimize these attitudes by designing programs [12Ismaei F, Aghamolaei T. Attitudes toward learning communication skills among medical students of a university in Iran. Acta medica Iranica 2011; 49(9): 625-9.]. Intellectual health refers to the acceptance of new ideas and experiences and the desire to increase understanding and improve skills and maximize creativity and create the potential to share with others and use it to improve society [13Living Well Services - Intellectual Wellness. Available from: https://www.unh.edu/health/well/intellectual-wellness-15Carlsson C, Walden P, Eds. Digital coaching to build sustainable wellness routines for young elderly. InBled eConference 2017; 45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18690/978-961-286-043-1.6]
]. Intellectual health causes creative mental stimulation as well as learning new and exciting things [16Scheer SB, Lockee BB. Addressing the wellness needs of online distance learners. Open Learn 2003; 18(2): 177-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680510307409]
]. Discovering and exploring one's world, gaining more information about others, expanding one's mind and potential, and solving a problem, sharing and receiving knowledge with others, strengthen spiritual health [13Living Well Services - Intellectual Wellness. Available from: https://www.unh.edu/health/well/intellectual-wellness]. Therefore, the intellectual health of individuals in society plays an important role in ensuring the dynamism and efficiency of that society [17Allen J, Balfour R, Bell R, Marmot M. Social determinants of mental health. Int Rev Psychiatry 2014; 26(4): 392-407.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2014.928270] [PMID: 25137105]
]. Undoubtedly, students are young and active workers of society, and their intellectual health plays an important role in the growth and development of their critical thinking and problem-solving and coping, time management, and self-knowledge skills [18khandaghi a. The relationship between students’ critical thinking and mental health in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. J Fundam Mental Health 2011; 13(50): 23-114., 19Sedighi E, Bidaki R, Meidani A, Ahmadinia H, Rezaeian M. Mental health status in medical students of rafsanjan university of medical sciences in 2016. Majallah-i Ilmi-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Rafsanjan 2018; 17(7): 669-80.]. Students can develop this dimension of health in university environment, cultural participation, community participation, and personal entertainment.

Students who have a high level of intellectual health have an active mind and continue to learn and use available resources to expand knowledge and improve skills [19Sedighi E, Bidaki R, Meidani A, Ahmadinia H, Rezaeian M. Mental health status in medical students of rafsanjan university of medical sciences in 2016. Majallah-i Ilmi-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Rafsanjan 2018; 17(7): 669-80., 20Sayyadi M, Sayyad S, Vahabi A, Vahabi B, Noori B, Amani M. Evaluation of spiritual health level and its related factors in the students of Sanandaj Universities, 2015. Shenakht J Psychol Psychiatry 2019; 6(1): 1-0.]. In addition, intellectual health is critical to sustainable health and well-being, and strengthening this dimension of health, surprisingly strengthens individuals' critical thinking and innovation and growth [21Sadeghian E, Heidarian Pour A. Stressors and mental health status among students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. J Hayat 2009; 15(1): 71-80.]. Intellectual and psychological problems in students lead to disruption of homework, reduced motivation, anxiety, fear and worry, and it wastes a significant portion of their mental energy instead of spending time studying and learning [19Sedighi E, Bidaki R, Meidani A, Ahmadinia H, Rezaeian M. Mental health status in medical students of rafsanjan university of medical sciences in 2016. Majallah-i Ilmi-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Rafsanjan 2018; 17(7): 669-80., 21Sadeghian E, Heidarian Pour A. Stressors and mental health status among students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. J Hayat 2009; 15(1): 71-80., 22Tavakolizadeh J, Khodadadi Z. Assessment of mental health among freshmen entering the first semester in Gonabad University of Medical Sciences in 2009-2010. Horizon Med Sci 2010; 16(2): 45-51.]. However, the intellectual health of students in the medical sciences department is of particular importance due to the special conditions and stresses in the workplace. Official reports show an increase in the number of mental disorders in medical students [23Shariati M, Kaffashi A, Ghalehbandi M, Fateh A, Ebadi M. Mental health in medical students of the Iran University of Medical Sciences 2002.]. Ahmadi et al.'s study showed that 1.6% of nursing students suffer from relatively severe depression [24Ahmadi Z. Surveying mental health status of nursing and non-nursing students of Shahroud Islamic Azad University. J Isl Azd Uni-Tehran Med Brch 2007; 17(2): 107-11.].

Intellectual health among students is achieved when they participate in group discussions, share their experiences, and listen to the ideas and experiences of others, strengthen critical thinking, find solutions to their problems, and have innovation. Therefore, considering the importance of intellectual health of

medical students in order to have a creative, critical and successful mind in clinical activities and the role of communication skills to achieve these characteristics, our aim in this study has been to investigate the relationship between intellectual health and communication skills of students of Paramedicine School at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Since this dimension of health is achieved through participation in the university environment, cultural participation, community participation, and personal entertainment such as studying, it is hoped that the results of this study will be a reference for policymakers in planning for academic activities to improve these two skills in medical students.

2. METHODS

The present study is descriptive-analytical, which was performed cross-sectionally in 2019 at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. The statistical population of this study included senior students of the Paramedicine School (Radiology, Laboratory Sciences, Anesthesia, Health Information Technology) (95 people). Due to the limitations of the statistical population, all individuals were selected as the sample; that is, the statistical sample is the same as the members of the statistical community. Library methods such as reading and reviewing domestic and foreign books and publications and searching in information databases (Internet) were used to collect and review literature review and the questionnaire was used as the main tool for data collection to achieve the required data. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: participants' demographic profile, Barton's standard communication skills questionnaire (1990), and intellectual health questionnaire based on the intellectual health scale of entrepreneurs' personality traits assessment questionnaire. Since students are young, creative, and have new ideas, they are similar to entrepreneurs, so this questionnaire was used. Barton's Questionnaire, whose validity and reliability have been confirmed in a study by Moradi Dasht et al. (2013), has three subscales of listening, feedback, and verbal skills. Each subscale had 6 questions. The questions were in the form of a five-choice Likert, from “fully disagree” at score 1 to “fully agree” at score 5. The minimum score for each subscale was 6 and the maximum was 30. The higher score indicated that more communication skills were used. A 13-question questionnaire based on the intellectual health scale of entrepreneurs' personality traits assessment questionnaire [25Kordnaeij A, Zali M, Hooman H, Shams S. Measurement instrument of personality characteristics of Iranian’s entrepreneurs: Ph. D thesis]. Tarbiat Modares University 2007.], whose validity and reliability have been confirmed [26Sharifzadeh A, Abdollahzadeh G. Evaluating relationships between learning styles and entrepreneurial traits of agriculture students. Quarterly J Res Plan Higher Educ 2012; 18(2): 131-52.], was used to measure students' intellectual health. Each question was measured using a 4-choice Likert scale from “fully disagree” at score 1 to “fully agree” at score 4. The analysis of the scores in this questionnaire was as follows: very weak (13-34), weak (34-38), strong (38-43), and very strong (43-52). The questionnaire was presented to the students in person after obtaining permission from the faculty officials. After data collection, it was entered into SPSS 22 software and analyzed through descriptive statistic indices (mean and standard deviation) and analytical statistics (Pearson correlation and t-test).

3. RESULTS

Of the 95 senior students of Paramedicine School, 80 students (84%) participated in the study. 75% of the participants were women. The mean age of the participants was 21.15 ±1.89. The total mean score of the communication skills in students was 59.61 ±5.82 (Table 1).

Table 1
The mean score of communication skills based on gender.


The results of the T-test showed that the difference between the mean communication skills in the two groups of men and women was statistically significant (P = 0.003). Spearman's test results showed a relationship between communication skills and the age of participants (r = 0.13, p = 0.2). Pearson's test results also showed a direct and significant relationship between verbal and listening skills (r = 0.32, p = 0.003), verbal and feedback (r = 0.43, p = .001) and listening and feedback (r = 0.41, p = 0.001).

The mean intellectual health of the participants in the study was 33.45 ±5.02, which was 33.08 ±4.78 for women and 34.55 ± 5.68 for men. The difference in mean intellectual health between the two groups of men and women was not statistically significant (p=0.261). Mental health had a positive relationship with age, which means that as age increased, intellectual health scores also increased. There was a positive correlation between communication skills and students' intellectual health (r=0.2, p=0.07). Pearson test results showed a positive but not statistically significant correlation between intellectual health with verbal skills (r =0.162, P = 0.152) and listening skills (r =0.096, P =0.395) and feedback skills (r =0.204, P =0.069).

4. DISCUSSION

This research was conducted with the aim to investigate students’ communication skills level and its relation with their intellectual health. The study’s findings showed students’ communication skills are moderate. The communication skills had a relation with the participants’ age and gender, meaning that as age increased, communication skills of participants increased as well. Also, results showed students’ intellectual health is at a low level and there is a relationship between communication skills and intellectual health.

The present findings showed students’ communication skills are at a moderate level. In line with the present study’s findings, Hemmati et al. [11Hemmati-Maslakpak M, Sheikhbaglu M, Baghaie R. Relationship between the communication skill of nurse-patient with patient safety in the critical care units. J Clin Nurs Midwifery 2014; 3.] evaluated students’ communication skills as moderate. The results of some studies [10Barati M, Salehi O, Samavati A, Moeini B. Assessment of communication skills level among medical college students: verbal, listening, and feedback skills. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac 2012; 10(2): 145-54., 27Salimi M, Peyman H, Sadeghifar J, Toloui Rakhshan S, Alizadeh M, Yamani N. Assessment of interpersonal communication skills and associated factors among students of allied medicine school in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Indian J Med Educ 2013; 12(12): 895-902.] evaluated students’ communication skills as low and in other studies [28Amini R, Soleymani F, Mohammadi N, Tapak L. Relationship between communication skills and general health in nursing students of hamadan university of medical sciences. J Educ Community Health 2018; 5(2): 36-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21859/jech.5.2.36]
-30Ryan CA, Walshe N, Gaffney R, Shanks A, Burgoyne L, Wiskin CM. Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing students. BMC Med Educ 2010; 10(1): 24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-10-24] [PMID: 20236526]
], it was evaluated as good and strong, in which the findings of this study are different from these studies. This difference can be due to differences in the statistical population, information collection tools, or students' cultural differences. Therefore, it is suggested that educational workshops be held for students at the beginning of university or during their studies on how to communicate.

In this study, men had stronger communication skills than women. This was different from the results of a study by Molaee et al. at Ardebil University of Medical Sciences, which assessed the level of communication skills of female students as higher than that of men [31Molaee B, Mohammadi MA, Dadkhah B, Mozafari N, Habibi A, Savad poor MH. InCommunicative Skills of students of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences. Abstract book of first national seminar of clinical education in nursing and midwifery 2009 Aug 4.]and there was no significant statistical relationship between communication skills and gender in other studies [2Gheirati E, Shabanifar A, Akhlaghi M, Peyman N. Relationship between communication skills and mental health among the students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran SJSPH 2016; 14(3): 61-72., 32Yousefi F. The relationship between emotional intelligence and communication skills in university students 2006; 3(9): 5-13.]. This difference in communication skills can be attributed to the differences between men and women. Men are more likely to communicate as a way to maintain their status and independence and to negotiate for power and victory and counseling, while women tend to see communication as a way to make friends and build relationships. Although women communicate more quickly, they are very weak in transmitting their thoughts to the other side, and only the power of understanding what others say is high in them, which is called understanding, but, perceiving and receiving what others say is said to be higher in men; therefore, communication is more in men than women [33Schamenek A. Do women have better communication skills than men? 2012.Available from: https://www.quora.com/Do-women-have-better- communication-skills-than-men].

Every three domains of communication skills had positive and significant correlation, meaning that as each of the domains of communication skills increased and was promoted, other domains were also increased. This finding is consistent with the results of Barati’sstudy [34Barati M, Afsar A, Ahmadpanah M. Assessment of communication skills level among healthcare practitioners. Av J Clin Med 2012; 19(1): 62-9.] that examined the level of communication skills of students and staff in the health care sector.

The results of the study also showed that the intellectual health of the participants is at a weak level. In the present study, the comparison of students' intellectual health in terms of gender did not show a significant difference, which this finding was consistent with the result of studies conducted by Bahar et al. [35Bahar E, Henderson AS, Mackinnon AJ. An epidemiological study of mental health and socioeconomic conditions in Sumatera, Indonesia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1992; 85(4): 257-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1992.tb01466.x] [PMID: 1595358]
], Bagheri Yazdi et al. [36Bagheri Yazdi SA, Bolhari J, Peyravi H. Mental Health Status of Newly Admitted Students to Tehran University at 1994-1995 Academic Year. Majallah-i Ravanpizishki va Ravanshinasi-i Balini-i Iran 1995; 1(4): 30-9.] and Dibajnia et al. [37Dibajnia P, Bakhtiari M. Mental health status of the students in the faculty of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University, 2002. J Ard Uni of Med Sci 2002; 1(4): 27-32. [JAUMS].].

In the results of this study, intellectual health had a positive relationship with age, which is in contrast to Gheirati's study [2Gheirati E, Shabanifar A, Akhlaghi M, Peyman N. Relationship between communication skills and mental health among the students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran SJSPH 2016; 14(3): 61-72.] that has shown that students' intellectual health is negatively correlated with their age. Since intellectual health refers to the acceptance of new ideas and experiences and the desire to increase understanding and improve skills and maximize creativity, it is necessary to hold the workshop on creativity and innovative ideas in universities, which is now the missing piece in these centers.

There is a positive correlation between communication skills and students' intellectual health. So that the improvement of communication skills in students increases their intellectual health in accepting new ideas, increasing their creativity and skills in solving complex problems, and critical thinking. The results of the study are in line with the results of Amini et al.'s study [28Amini R, Soleymani F, Mohammadi N, Tapak L. Relationship between communication skills and general health in nursing students of hamadan university of medical sciences. J Educ Community Health 2018; 5(2): 36-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21859/jech.5.2.36]
], which states that communication skills affect people's intellectual health, but it is inconsistent with the results of Gheirati's study [2Gheirati E, Shabanifar A, Akhlaghi M, Peyman N. Relationship between communication skills and mental health among the students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran SJSPH 2016; 14(3): 61-72.] that found no relationship between communication skills and mental health.

Some of the strongest points of this study that can be mentioned are the cooperation of students in completing the questionnaire and the enthusiasm of the students and the relevant officials in the faculty and university to know the results of the study and some of the limitation for this study that can be mentioned are the inability to investigate academic major and place of residence and marital status of the participating students. The cross-sectional nature of this study, hence the inability to infer causation and recommend interventions and its relatively small sample from only one university; hence the difficulty generalizing are other limitations.

Providing the results of the study to the authorities makes it more accurate to hold such workshops and to make the counseling centers more active at the faculty and university level. Also, the study of basic factors in measuring the level of communication skills and intellectual health can help macro-planning in improving these skills and the intellectual health of individuals. Also, recommend using other tools for the same constructs, and examining more students at this university and at other universities in Iran and elsewhere.

CONCLUSION

Communication skills affect intellectual health, and it can be argued that as communication skills improve, so does intellectual health. Since the university is not only a space for the transfer of knowledge but also an environment for human education, it is suggested that workshops be held continuously for students especially at the beginning of their studies at the university to improve their communication skills, as it can be expected that students' intellectual health will be improved by improving communication skills and it should be noted that the cost of holding workshops to improve communication skills will be much lower than the cost of treating mental and psychological problems.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

The authors confirm that mentioned data for this manuscript gathered as an educational activity in educational courses and do not require ethical approval.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

Not applicable.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Written informed consent was obtained from each participant prior to the study.

AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS

All data presented in the result but the raw data that supports the finding of this study are available from the corresponding author [R.F] upon request.

FUNDING

None.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The author declares no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We sincerely appreciate the cooperation of the students of The School of Paramedicine at Kashan Medical Sciences University, who helped the researchers to carry out this research.

REFERENCES

[1] Zeyghami Mohammadi S, Haghighi S. The association between nurses’ communication skills and nurse-physician relationship and collaboration in Alborz hospital of Karaj in 2008. Medical Science J Isl Azd Uni-Tehran Med Brch 2009; 19(2): 121-7.
[2] Gheirati E, Shabanifar A, Akhlaghi M, Peyman N. Relationship between communication skills and mental health among the students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran SJSPH 2016; 14(3): 61-72.
[3] Kourkouta L, Papathanasiou IV. Communication in nursing practice. Mater Sociomed 2014; 26(1): 65-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/msm.2014.26.65-67] [PMID: 24757408]
[4] Chant S, Jenkinson T, Randle J, Russell G. Communication skills: some problems in nursing education and practice. J Clin Nurs 2002; 11(1): 12-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2702.2002.00553.x] [PMID: 11845748]
[5] Khatami S, Asefzadeh S. Communication skills of medical interns of Qazvin UMS 2007; 79-81.
[6] Jakovljevic MB, Djordjevic V, Markovic V, Milovanovic O, Rancic NK, Cupara SM. Cross-sectional survey on complementary and alternative medicine awareness among health care professionals and students using CHBQ questionnaire in a Balkan country. Chin J Integr Med 2013; 19(9): 650-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-013-1434-6] [PMID: 23975129]
[7] Brown JB, Boles M, Mullooly JP, Levinson W. Effect of clinician communication skills training on patient satisfaction. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131(11): 822-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-131-11-199912070-00004] [PMID: 10610626]
[8] Vahabi B, Vahabi A, Roshani D. A study of interpersonal communication skills and its associated factors among students of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, 2015. J Med Edu Devlop 2017; 9(24): 102-12.
[9] Shahjooi S, Jalalmanesh S, Ebrahimi E. Relationship between critical thinking and interpersonal communication skills in nursing students of Azad University Tehran medical Branch. J Nurs Educ 2014; 3(3): 1-13.
[10] Barati M, Salehi O, Samavati A, Moeini B. Assessment of communication skills level among medical college students: verbal, listening, and feedback skills. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac 2012; 10(2): 145-54.
[11] Hemmati-Maslakpak M, Sheikhbaglu M, Baghaie R. Relationship between the communication skill of nurse-patient with patient safety in the critical care units. J Clin Nurs Midwifery 2014; 3.
[12] Ismaei F, Aghamolaei T. Attitudes toward learning communication skills among medical students of a university in Iran. Acta medica Iranica 2011; 49(9): 625-9.
[13] Living Well Services - Intellectual Wellness. Available from: https://www.unh.edu/health/well/intellectual-wellness
[14] Naz AS, Rehman R, Katpar SJ, Hussain M. Intellectual wellness awareness: a neglected area in medical universities of Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2014; 64(9): 993-7.
[PMID: 25823175]
[15] Carlsson C, Walden P, Eds. Digital coaching to build sustainable wellness routines for young elderly. InBled eConference 2017; 45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18690/978-961-286-043-1.6]
[16] Scheer SB, Lockee BB. Addressing the wellness needs of online distance learners. Open Learn 2003; 18(2): 177-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680510307409]
[17] Allen J, Balfour R, Bell R, Marmot M. Social determinants of mental health. Int Rev Psychiatry 2014; 26(4): 392-407.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2014.928270] [PMID: 25137105]
[18] khandaghi a. The relationship between students’ critical thinking and mental health in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. J Fundam Mental Health 2011; 13(50): 23-114.
[19] Sedighi E, Bidaki R, Meidani A, Ahmadinia H, Rezaeian M. Mental health status in medical students of rafsanjan university of medical sciences in 2016. Majallah-i Ilmi-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Rafsanjan 2018; 17(7): 669-80.
[20] Sayyadi M, Sayyad S, Vahabi A, Vahabi B, Noori B, Amani M. Evaluation of spiritual health level and its related factors in the students of Sanandaj Universities, 2015. Shenakht J Psychol Psychiatry 2019; 6(1): 1-0.
[21] Sadeghian E, Heidarian Pour A. Stressors and mental health status among students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. J Hayat 2009; 15(1): 71-80.
[22] Tavakolizadeh J, Khodadadi Z. Assessment of mental health among freshmen entering the first semester in Gonabad University of Medical Sciences in 2009-2010. Horizon Med Sci 2010; 16(2): 45-51.
[23] Shariati M, Kaffashi A, Ghalehbandi M, Fateh A, Ebadi M. Mental health in medical students of the Iran University of Medical Sciences 2002.
[24] Ahmadi Z. Surveying mental health status of nursing and non-nursing students of Shahroud Islamic Azad University. J Isl Azd Uni-Tehran Med Brch 2007; 17(2): 107-11.
[25] Kordnaeij A, Zali M, Hooman H, Shams S. Measurement instrument of personality characteristics of Iranian’s entrepreneurs: Ph. D thesis]. Tarbiat Modares University 2007.
[26] Sharifzadeh A, Abdollahzadeh G. Evaluating relationships between learning styles and entrepreneurial traits of agriculture students. Quarterly J Res Plan Higher Educ 2012; 18(2): 131-52.
[27] Salimi M, Peyman H, Sadeghifar J, Toloui Rakhshan S, Alizadeh M, Yamani N. Assessment of interpersonal communication skills and associated factors among students of allied medicine school in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Indian J Med Educ 2013; 12(12): 895-902.
[28] Amini R, Soleymani F, Mohammadi N, Tapak L. Relationship between communication skills and general health in nursing students of hamadan university of medical sciences. J Educ Community Health 2018; 5(2): 36-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21859/jech.5.2.36]
[29] Nayebi N, Majd Teymouri R. Communication skills and related factors within patient by nursing student. J Hol Nurs Midwifery 2015; 25(2): 93-101.
[30] Ryan CA, Walshe N, Gaffney R, Shanks A, Burgoyne L, Wiskin CM. Using standardized patients to assess communication skills in medical and nursing students. BMC Med Educ 2010; 10(1): 24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-10-24] [PMID: 20236526]
[31] Molaee B, Mohammadi MA, Dadkhah B, Mozafari N, Habibi A, Savad poor MH. InCommunicative Skills of students of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences. Abstract book of first national seminar of clinical education in nursing and midwifery 2009 Aug 4.
[32] Yousefi F. The relationship between emotional intelligence and communication skills in university students 2006; 3(9): 5-13.
[33] Schamenek A. Do women have better communication skills than men? 2012.Available from: https://www.quora.com/Do-women-have-better- communication-skills-than-men
[34] Barati M, Afsar A, Ahmadpanah M. Assessment of communication skills level among healthcare practitioners. Av J Clin Med 2012; 19(1): 62-9.
[35] Bahar E, Henderson AS, Mackinnon AJ. An epidemiological study of mental health and socioeconomic conditions in Sumatera, Indonesia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1992; 85(4): 257-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1992.tb01466.x] [PMID: 1595358]
[36] Bagheri Yazdi SA, Bolhari J, Peyravi H. Mental Health Status of Newly Admitted Students to Tehran University at 1994-1995 Academic Year. Majallah-i Ravanpizishki va Ravanshinasi-i Balini-i Iran 1995; 1(4): 30-9.
[37] Dibajnia P, Bakhtiari M. Mental health status of the students in the faculty of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University, 2002. J Ard Uni of Med Sci 2002; 1(4): 27-32. [JAUMS].
Track Your Manuscript:


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents




Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open