The Open Food Science Journal

ISSN: 1874-2564 ― Volume 12, 2020

Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Campomanesia Phaea Extracts Obtained by Pressurized Liquid Extraction

Daniele Martins Firmiano, Gabriela Marques Bittencourt, Alessandra Lopes de Oliveira*
Departamento de Engenharia de Alimentos da, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos da, Universidade de São Paulo (USP/FZEA), Brazil



This research used the Pressurized Liquid Extraction process (PLE) to obtain cambuci extracts rich in phenolic compounds and, consequently, with high antioxidant activity.


We determined the centesimal composition and the mean particle size of the dried and crushed sample for characterization of the fixed bed extractor. Extractions with pressurized ethanol were performed following a Central Composite Design (CCD) with temperature (60 °C at the center point with ± 10 °C amplitude) and the contact time between the solvent and the matrix (6 min at the center point with ± 2 min amplitude) as independent variables in the process. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) of compounds and antioxidant activity were determined.


The mean particle size of the cambuci in the PLE was 263.4 μm with apparent and real densities of 32.42 g/cm3 and 1.62 g/cm3, respectively, resulting in a fixed bed porosity of 0.43. The centesimal composition of the comminuted and dried sample was 12.5 ± 0.1% moisture, 3.2 ± 0.2% ash, 3.35 ± 0.07% crude protein, 10.32 ± 0.08% crude fiber and 0.35 ± 0.04% ethereal extract. The highest extraction yield (41.7%) was obtained by using the binomial 70 ºC with 8 min of solvent contact in three batches. Extracts with the highest TPC (6501.10 mg AGE/100 g sample) were obtained by the binomial 74 °C with 6 min of contact; the binomial 50 °C with 4 min of contact gave rise to the extract with the highest antioxidant activity. The CCD showed high yield extracts with high antioxidant activity and a high total phenolic compound content.


With the use of the proposed experimental design, it was possible to optimize the extraction of total phenolic compounds from the sample.

Keywords: Cambuci, Antioxidant activity, Pressurized liquid extraction, Total phenolic content, Brazilian forest, Essential oil.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 11
First Page: 56
Last Page: 65
Publisher Id: TOFSJ-11-56
DOI: 10.2174/1874256401911010056

Article History:

Received Date: 19/10/2018
Revision Received Date: 07/02/2019
Acceptance Date: 18/02/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/05/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Firmiano et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Avenida Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Caixa Postal 23, Pirassununga, SP,Brazil, CEP: 13635-900;
Tel: (+5519)35654268; Fax: (+5519)35654284; E-mail:

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